What is a sonata?
The word sonata comes from the Italian "sonata"(sonata) or Latin "sonare", which translates as "sounds". If we talk about the definition of a sonata, then at different times this word had different meanings.
Let's talk about them in more detail.
What is a Sonata: Definition
At present, the sonata is a musical genre,in which the work is written for execution on one or two musical instruments. A musical work is characterized by one artistic idea, but consists of several contrasting parts.
For the first time sonatas began to call theirworks by Spanish composers in the 16th century. Until the 17th century, sonatas were called instrumentals, and the vocal ones were called "cantata"; at that time sonatas were polyphonic (for several instruments).
Sonatas were written and written for various instruments: so, there are solo piano sonatas or sonatas for violin / cello and piano. Beethoven sonatas are very well-known (for example, "Moonlight Sonata"), Schubert, Chopin, Prokofiev, Tchaikovsky and other composers.
Most sonatas consist of three parts:
- The first part is a hallmark of the sonataand is characterized by the greatest intensity, tempo and severity. This part of the sonata is written in a special musical form - sonata. It, in turn, consists of the outset (exposure), development (development), total (reprise).
- The second part, as a rule, is slow. She calmly and evenly develops the thought and feelings of the first part.
- The final - the third part of the sonata - sums up. Usually sustained in rapid motion and necessarily contains a conclusion, the logical completion of the work.
In addition to sonatas consisting of three parts, there are sonatas one-part (for example, Franz Liszt's Sonata "Upon reading Dante"), two- and four-part.
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