Trepanation of the skull: what is this procedure and in what cases is it necessary? Recovery and consequences after trepanation of the skull
In most people, the phrase "trepanation of the skull"causes unpleasant sensations. Many have heard that such operations were done in antiquity, but if necessary they are successfully carried out today. What is the trepanation of the skull for? What it is? In what cases is surgery necessary, how terrible is it and whether a person can live a full life after such a procedure?
Operation carried out with dissection of soft tissueshead and bones of the cranium for the purpose of penetrating and conducting further research or operation of the brain tissue, is called "trepanation of the skull." What does this mean and to whom is this treatment prescribed?
Indications for trephination
Trepanation can be administered to patients,which have various brain diseases, oncological formations, edema, blood clots, problems with the blood vessels of the brain, nervous disorders, tissue infections and vascular dysfunction of the hard shell of the brain. An operation is also prescribed for head injuries, fractures or indentations of the bones of the skull, as well as for the removal of intracranial pressure. Another indicator for the procedure may be a biopsy. Operation trepanation of the skull allows you to take a piece of brain tissue for later research.
Types of operation
The procedure is carried out in different ways, which will be assigned to a particular patient - is determined by the general indications and nature of the disease.
- Bone-plastic trepanation of the skull (traditional). In the process, a separate section is cut outcranial bones. Then an operation is performed on the brain, after which the withdrawn part of the bone returns to its place. If the procedure is successful, additional intervention is no longer required.
- Resection trepanation of the skull. What does it mean? A small hole is made in the skull and expands to the desired diameter. Unlike the first type, the opening of the skull after the operation is not covered with bone tissue. The brain is no longer protected by the bones of the skull, this function is performed only by the skin and soft tissues.
- Decompression Trepanationis to make a small hole in the bone of the skull. This procedure is assigned to patients to reduce intracranial pressure.
- Craniotomy in the mind- this is when the operation of trepanation of the skull is carried outpatient who is conscious. This procedure is necessary to monitor the functionality and reaction of the brain to certain manipulations of the surgeon. The patient does not experience any pain.
- Stereotaxy. At such research the computer is used. With his help, an examination of the brain tissue is carried out, which will then be operated on.
How to prepare for an operation
What you need to know the patient who is appointedTrepanation of the skull? What kind of procedure is it, how will it be conducted and how to organize your life for a speedy recovery after it - all these issues should be discussed with the attending physician in advance. Before the operation, it is necessary to pass all necessary studies of the brain and nervous system, to pass the tests.
One week before surgery, stop takingblood thinning and anti-inflammatory drugs. The taking of medicines should be strictly controlled by a doctor, self-medication in this period is unacceptable. Before the operation itself (within 12 hours), you must stop eating food and liquids.
Care should be taken of who and how to take the patient out of the clinic after discharge, who will be able to help around the house during the recovery period and provide other care.
"How do trepanation of the skull and is it painful?""Is perhaps one of the most common questions in patients. The operation in most cases is performed under general anesthesia. Neither the trepanation, nor the manipulation of the surgeon with the tissues of the brain, the patient will not feel. After trepanation will be prescribed painkillers.
In the case of stereotaxia, anesthesia is prescribedlocally. If a craniotomy is prescribed, at which the patient must remain in consciousness, a general anesthetic will be provided for that period of the operation, when a person's consciousness is not required.
After introducing the patient into anesthesia, the skin on the headcarefully treated with an antiseptic. An incision is made, revealing the necessary portion of the skull. Trepanized bone of the skull is excised, removed and performed surgery on the brain.
Upon completion of the intervention, the exposed areathe brain closes. The remote part of the cranial bone returns to its original place, and surgical sutures are superimposed on the scalp. To ensure the outflow of fluid and removal of blood in the operated area, drainage tubes are inserted, a bandage is applied to the head. After a few days, drainage can be removed. The operation itself lasts several hours.
After the patient is sent to the postoperativeThe Chamber, where for its vital indicators are carefully monitored. The pulse, body temperature, breathing and blood pressure are checked regularly. After a while, the operated surgery will be transferred to the intensive care unit, and then to the hospital ward.
After the operation, at which thetrepanation of the skull, restoration of the patient's health begins immediately. The operation itself is quite complex and takes a lot of effort from the patient, so the rehabilitation process is very important. In the clinic, the patient will stay between 3 and 7 days, the period depends on the severity of the operation and the patient's health. If there are complications, the period of stay under the supervision of a doctor will be increased.
It will be reduced to the following:
- The patient's head should be kept elevated in order to lower blood pressure.
- Consumption of liquid will be limited, if vomiting occurs, antiemetics are prescribed.
- Drugs that reduce the amount of fluid in the body (steroids) may be prescribed.
- Antibiotics are used to prevent the onset of infection.
- After a day from the head of the operated bandage can be removed. The wound must be kept clean and under constant monitoring.
- The patient should start walking as little as possible. This will prevent the occurrence of pneumonia or the formation of blood clots.
Upon returning home
Excessive loads after such a complex operationcontraindicated, as well as doing sports. It will be very good if one of the relatives will help a person organize a life in the first time of staying at home. People after trepanation of the skull often experience psychological stress and depression. They need to communicate with a positive person. Who else, how not close, can help in this. In some cases, you can not cope with depression by yourself, then you should seek professional help from a psychologist or a psychotherapist.
It is equally important to follow the instructions and observea doctor's recommendation that will observe a patient who has been trepanized by the skull. The consequences of surgery and the speed of recovery are largely dependent on postoperative care. The operated area of the head should be kept clean. It is not possible to wet a wound for a long time. If the scar has changed color or something else has gone wrong, you should immediately show your doctor.
Sports are contraindicated, you can notpractice even yoga, because many exercises are associated with the slopes of the head. But light loads and walks in the fresh air will go for good. They will disperse blood and prevent the formation of blood clots. It is important to lead a healthy lifestyle, to eat properly and in a timely manner.
It is necessary to take medicine, which appointed a specialist. Decoctions of medicinal herbs will be good helpers in recovery, but before using them, consult a doctor.
This is the kind of treatment that is prescribed whenfrom two evils it is necessary to choose the lesser. Operation on the skull allows you to get rid of the most complex diseases, but the person is injured, which will accompany him all his life. The human brain has not been studied as well as we would like, therefore any intervention can have the most unpredictable result, namely, trephination of the skull. The consequences of the operation can be very different or not manifest at all.
People who underwent surgery on the brain are prone toincreased intracranial pressure, they can not perform complex mental and physical work. Many have to change their work activities and move to less paid, but easier. Refusing the usual way of life is not easy.
The success of the procedure is determined by the set offactors. Firstly, it is the severity of the disease or injury that the patient has encountered, and, of course, the qualification of the surgeon. Physical health and maintaining a correct lifestyle before the operation is also important. Smokers are most prone to the occurrence of postoperative complications.
- Constant headaches.
- Impairment of hearing, vision.
- The operated portion of the skull is deformed.
- Speech, behavior, thinking, memory can change.
- Violations of coordination.
- Problems with the bladder and intestines.
- Paralysis, convulsions, weakness.
- Blood clots may form or bleeding may open.
- Infection or cerebral edema is possible.
Is a person threatened after such a procedure astrepanation of the skull, disability? Yes. A patient who has undergone such treatment is given a disability. If fully recovered, it can be canceled within three years. But it should be remembered that trepanation is a complex and dangerous operation, the results of which can turn out to be very deplorable. Because each case is considered individually.