The principle of operation and the device pumping station water
Believe me, a private house can be equipped with such a high level of comfort that it will be much more comfortable to live in it than in a city apartment. In any case, the most important system, water supply, can be used with no less convenience. In the same way, to get water, you just need to open the tap, which is not very compatible with the suburban infrastructure, do you agree?
But this is not a "rainbow" dream. To implement the ideas in the water supply scheme, it is enough to turn on the pump station. She will remake for the owners the enormous amount of hard physical work. True, for its proper connection and operation it is necessary to know the equipment device well.
We offer you valuable information about the specifics of the use of this technology. Our article will help to understand the principle of operation of the pumping station and will introduce the installation rules.The information we have provided is supplemented with extremely clear diagrams, photo clips and video tutorials.
Water supply station
For the organization of water supply in a private house, the shops offer pumping stations in the form of a compact unit made of a hydraulic tank, an automation unit and an electric pump. It is also possible to assemble a similar water supply installation from individual parts and equipment.
Both options are acceptable, but it is better to choose a ready-made kit with a manufacturer's warranty. It will be cheaper and more practical with further maintenance.
The main working components
According to the device, the factory-assembled pump station for water supply differs from the surface pump by the presence of the control system in terms of pressure values.
The structure includes the following functional components:
- Surface electric pump.
- Accumulator with nipple and internal rubber “pear”.
- Pressure gauge.
- Pressure switch.
- Connecting fittings.
For the intake of water, a suction pipe with a check valve and a strainer is connected to it. And to the outlet of the installation connects the line transporting the pumped liquid to the points of consumption. Moreover, if the station has a built-in filter and valve, then they can not supplement the suction hose.
Hydraulic diaphragm tank together with a centrifugal pump is able to maintain a pressure of 1.5 atmospheres in the water supply of the cottage. This is quite enough for the stable operation of all household appliances, which is installed in private homes.And most of the models of hydroaccumulators are designed for 4.5 atmospheres of the maximum possible pressure, which is abundant even for a cottage of two or three floors.
Automatic compact station and does not require heavy concreting of the site under the equipment. Its largest element is the water storage tank. However, its installation requires a separate room due to the hum generated during operation. Most often, the entire installation is mounted on the ground floor or in the basement, where it is most convenient to operate and maintain it.
A somewhat expensive but quite reasonable solution for placing equipment may be a caisson, in which both the whole complex of units and the pump with automatic equipment without a hydraulic tank installed in the house can be located. The budget version of the location of the station at the cottage involves the construction of a separate pavilion that protects the unit from the atmospheric negative.
Work and features of the control unit
The task of the control pumping station of the automatics is to monitor the pressure in the system and turn on / off the engine of the hydraulic pump as needed.For this, the control unit includes a pressure gauge and a relay. The first controls the current pressure, and the second controls the pump.
The main elements of the relay are two springs. The large one is configured to close the circuit at the lowest pressure in the membrane tank, when there is little water in it. A smaller one controls the maximum pressure, opening the circuit when the latter is reached.
When buying a pumping station for operation in circuits with a probability of short-term operation without water, it is necessary to pay attention to the presence of a flow controller device. It is designed to protect the engine from overheating in the absence of water in the water intake. In such units, the control unit is not focused on the limiting values of pressure, but on lowering the flow.
The principle of the pump with a hydraulic accumulator
The capacity of the membrane tank is selected based on the volume of water consumption. A couple of 25–40 liters will be enough for a couple, and for a family of several people you will have to select a device from 100 liters. Tanks less than 15 liters and do buy only recommended for seasonal use in the country. Due to the constant pumping of water, the membrane wears out quickly.
It is believed that the larger the capacity, the longer the pumping equipment will last, because the number of on / off cycles will decrease. However, a large-capacity tank costs a lot. According to the rules, the hydraulic tank is selected on the basis of calculations, on the basis of the values indicated by the manufacturer of the on and off pressure, the actual water flow with water intakes simultaneously turned on.
The reserve fluid in the hydraulic tank is usually about one third of the total volume of the tank. All the remaining space is given under compressed air, which is needed to maintain a constant water pressure in the pipes.
If the hydraulic accumulator is built into the water supply system to minimize the risks associated with hydraulic reservoirs, then the tank can be selected to be small in size. In this case, it is not the volume of the tank that is important, but the presence of a membrane and air behind it. In the event of something, they will take the blow upon themselves, smoothing its consequences.
Works automatic pumping station in two cycles:
- First, water is pumped into the hydraulic accumulator by a pump from the water intake, creating in it an excess air pressure.
- When the tap in the house is opened, the membrane tank is emptied, after which the automation starts up the pump equipment again.
The device of the hydroaccumulator for pump station of water supply is extremely simple. It consists of a metal case and a sealed membrane, which divides the entire space inside into two parts.In the first of them is the air, and in the second water is pumped.
After filling the accumulator, the relay shuts off the pump. The opening of the tap in the sink leads to the fact that the water squeezed by the pressure of air on the membrane begins to gradually flow into the water supply system. At some point, the tank is emptied to such an extent that the pressure decreases. After this, the pump is turned on again, starting the cycle of the pump station operation on a new one.
When the tank is empty, the membrane septum is crushed and pressed against the flange of the inlet. After turning on the hydraulic pump, the membrane is filled with water pressure, compressing the air part and increasing the pressure in it already in the air. It is this gas-liquid interaction through the changing barrier that lies in the principle of operation of the membrane tank of the pumping station.
Equipment selection criteria
Factory-assembled pumping stations come with a surface hydraulic pump, often having an internal or external ejector. However, hydroaccumulators can also be used with submersible pumping equipment, but they are assigned a slightly different technical term “pumping system”.
In the case of working in tandem with a station, the membrane tanks may be smaller in volume than hydraulic tanks for systems with submersible pumps. This is due to the fact that the number of permissible on / off switches for submersible pumping units is less than for surface pumping machines.
Surface pumps with an internal ejector, have serious limitations on the depth of water intake. They are able to lift water only from 7–8 meters. However, they give a powerful water pressure at the exit with a water column of 40–60 meters (4–6 bar).
The internal ejector is not afraid of air traffic jams.They first pump the air without any negative consequences for themselves, and then they begin to pump the water from the well into the system.
The main drawback of stations with an internal ejector is a high noise level during operation. If these models of pumping equipment for autonomous water supply are planned to be installed in an honest house, then it is recommended to do it only in utility rooms with good sound insulation.
Remote ejector allows you to take water from the depths to 50 meters. These pumps are more economical, but have low efficiency (no more than 40%). But they produce much less noise than analogs with a built-in ejector.
The choice of the type of pumping unit for the station depends on the quality characteristics of the medium planned for pumping:
Determination of a site for a water supply station
Choosing the location for the pumping station, you need to focus on the characteristics of the hydraulic pump. Every ten meters of horizontal pipe between the water source and the pump reduces its suction capacity by 1 m.If they are expected to be separated by a distance of more than ten meters, then the model of the pump unit should be selected with an increased suction depth.
Automatic station of autonomous water supply system can be located:
- on the street in the caisson near the well;
- insulated pavilion built specially for pumping equipment;
- in the basement of the house.
The stationary outdoor version provides for the arrangement of the caisson and the laying of a pressure pipe from it to the cottage below the level of soil freezing. When constructing a year-round pipeline, laying it below the seasonal freezing depth is obligatory. When constructing temporary summer highways for the period of residence in the country, the pipeline is not buried below 40 - 60 cm or laid on the surface.
If you install the station in the basement or basement, you will not have to fear the pump will freeze in winter. It is only necessary to lay the suction pipe below the freezing limit of the soil, so that it does not freeze in severe cold. Often the well is drilled right in the house, then the length of the pipeline is significantly reduced.But not in every cottage such drilling is possible.
Installation of water supply pumping stations in a separate building is possible only in case of equipment operation during the period of positive temperatures. However, for areas with very low winter temperatures, this option, designed for operation all year round, needs to be warmed or provided with a heating system. It is better to immediately install the pumping station directly in the heated house.
When choosing a place for the location of the water supply station, it is necessary to take into account the temperature limits specified by the manufacturer in its passport:
Pressure parameters in the hydroaccumulator
For proper operation of household plumbing devices in the water supply of a cottage, it is necessary to maintain a pressure of 1.4–2.6 atmospheres.To prevent the hydroaccumulator membrane from wearing out too quickly, manufacturers recommend installing a pressure in it at 0.2–0.3 atm above water pressure.
The pressure in the water supply of a one-story house is usually 1.5 atm. From this figure, and should be repelled when adjusting the hydraulic tank. But for larger residential buildings, the pressure must be increased so that the water is in all the most distant valves from the riser. Here we need more complex hydraulic calculations, taking into account the length and configuration of pipelines, as well as the number and type of plumbing devices.
Simplified to calculate the desired pressure for domestic water supply can be by the formula(H + 6) / 10. Where “H” is the height from the pump to the highest water supply point in the plumbing on the top floor of the house.
However, if the calculated indicator will exceed the permissible characteristics of the existing plumbing and household appliances, then at setting such a pressure, these will fail. In this case, it is necessary to select a different scheme for distributing water pipes.
Possible installation problems
If the pump is switched on too often and immediately switched off, it is necessary to immediately check the air pressure in the accumulator. At low rates, it will be necessary to pump up this. But the problem can be solved in this way only if the membrane and the tank body are not damaged. Here, only contacting the repair center service center will help.
When water drops appear on the nipple of the air valve, the accumulator should be immediately disconnected from the plumbing system. This is a direct sign of damage to the membrane. Without replacing it in such a situation is not enough. The air in the water system of a private house through a membrane tank should not flow.
If the pump does not want to turn on at all, then it is worth looking at the pressure switch adjustment. There are times when it is set to too high pressure. But it is possible and the option with the ingress of air into the suction hose, which leads to actuation of protection against dry running.
Advantages of the pump unit with hydraulic tank
The pump unit is an integral part of the autonomous water supply system. It provides water from a well or well, the distribution of which is further down the cottage at the expense of the pump itself, the use of a water tank, or the use of a hydroaccumulator.
The use of only one pump in the distribution of water in a cottage is associated with many problems. With this arrangement of autonomous water supply pumping equipment is forced to constantly turn on / off, because of which its service life is sharply reduced. And in a situation with a power outage, the home is completely left without water.
To reduce pump wear and protect the house in case of accidents on electrical networks, an additional storage device is included in the house water supply system. This can be a water tank in the attic, from which water flows by gravity to the plumbing fixtures, or an artificially maintained accumulator (also known as a membrane tank or hydraulic tank).
In both cases, the pump is turned on to form a reserve of water in the tank.Only in the second case, the stock is created in the automatic mode by the pressure control system. At the same time, a storage tank allows you to create a reserve of water in case of power failure, and a system with a hydraulic tank without electricity will not work at all.
However, the drive in the filled state is notable for its considerable weight and, when installed in the attic, requires strengthening of the ceiling and insulation.
The version with a membrane tank is more convenient and practical. The principle of operation of the water supply system with such a pumping station is based on the artificial maintenance of water pressure in pipes. The pump itself, pumping water from the water intake, is included only to fill the tank. Further, it is fed into the system using compressed air.
Unlike the version with the expansion tank, the hydropneumatic installation is more compact. Plus, the use of a membrane type hydroaccumulator guarantees the absence of hydraulic shocks in the network and a constant pressure in the water pipes,and also simplifies maintenance of the water supply system for consumers in a private home.
The only drawback of pumping stations with accumulator is energy dependence. The water storage tank is often small in size between 25–50 liters. The pump has to be turned on often to fill it, and when the light is turned off, the water reserve is not enough for too long. In order to eliminate such situations, it is desirable to stock up on an autonomous generator.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
From what depths can pumping equipment lift water:
How to build a pumping station from a domestic centrifugal pump:
All about the principle of operation of the hydroaccumulator, going as part of the pumping station:
Automatic autonomous water supply systems make it possible, when staying in a country house, not to bother carrying water in buckets. Thanks to a simple device, pumping stations are simple to install and maintain. With their installation can handle almost anyone. Fortunately, there are quite a few configurations of pumping equipment of various types with accumulators; for each cottage you can find the optimal solution.