The calling of the Varangians as a key stage in the formation of Russia
The formation of the Russian stateis associated with such an event as the calling of the Varangians to Rus. Today between historians there are heated discussions about whether this event takes place in the history of the country or whether it is artificially invented by the chroniclers. To begin with, you need to figure out who these Varangians are-the descendants of the Russian princes. According to the theory of some scientists, Vikings in ancient times were called Scandinavian Vikings. Some sources also know the Byzantine origin of the Varangians. This term was used to refer to soldiers who were in a special position at the court of the Byzantine emperors, beginning in the 11th century. According to Old Russian sources, the Varangians were considered to be mercenaries from behind the sea (in this case the Baltic Sea), regardless of their nationality.
According to the chronicle, in the autumn of 862,calling the Varangians, this date is, of course, very conditional, however, it is she who appears in many written sources of those years. The main source, which contains detailed information about the origin of this event, is "The Tale of Bygone Years". However, the Varangians in Russia appeared long before their vocation. It is known that, beginning with the ninth century, the tribes of Slovenes, Chudis, Krivichs and others regularly paid tribute to the warriors who came from behind the Varangian (Baltic) Sea, that is, the Varangians. By 862 these soldiers were driven from the Russian lands by the united forces of the Slavic tribes, however, shortly after this event, between the tribes themselves, violent internecine wars began. Then their representatives decided to call on the reign of the prince from the side and went to search for him from the sea.
The first Varyags, called to rule in strangersthe lands, there were three brothers: Rurik, Sineus and Truvor, who occupied the cities of Izborsk and Ladoga, and also the banks of the White Lake. By the way, today there is a certain point of view, according to which the names Sineus and Truvor are fictional chronicler. At the same time, there are a lot of sources that indicate that these names really existed and were very common among the ancient Scandinavians. The administration of the first princes by the lands consisted in collecting from them tribute in favor of maintaining the troops in case of war. In 864, Prince Rurik moved from Ladoga to a new and well-fortified city of Novgorod and gave to the brethren the capital of Krivichi Polotsk, Beloozero, Murom and Rostov. Such a distribution of land contributes to the formation of the first in the north of Europe a single-state state called Upper Rus. Thus, the calling of the Varangians to the Russian lands took place and the rule of the Rurik dynasty, which ruled the country right up to the end of the 16th century, was laid.
This event does not cease to excite the mindsmodern researchers and history buffs. For example, in the chapter "The Tale of Bygone Years", devoted to vocation, you can find a lot of contradictions. If the Varangians were expelled from the Russian lands, why it was decided to turn to them for the calling of the prince? Historians explain such strange behavior of our ancestors in the following way: the tribes, freed from the requisitions of some invaders, were preparing for a new more crushing onslaught of others. The threat of an attack by the Scandinavians on the northern Russian lands was very real. The call of the Varangians to the reign and the choice of Rurik as a manager contributed to the preservation of peace in the Slav lands, and also protected them from the attacks of the previously hostile Scandinavians.
The formation of the Russian state is connected with the nameRurik. The existence of this historical person today is confirmed by many facts, however, disputes about who Rurik was actually in are still being conducted. Some scholars identify him with some wandering Danish knight Rörik who was an excellent warrior and bravely served his masters, competently defended their lands and made successful raids on the lands of neighbors. By the time when the call of the Varangians to the Russian lands took place, Rörik acquired the priceless experience of a diplomat, commander and adventurer. Perhaps, it was he who was called as the prince by the envoys of the ancient Russian tribes.
Despite all the arguments of scientists about whether it is truethe elders of the tribes came and called upon them to rule their lands by an alien, this event had a great influence on the development of the country as a whole. The Varangians brought with them a good weapon capable of protecting against the onslaught of the enemy, perfect ships, facilitated the organization of trade between Rus and other European states. At the same time, they received honey, wax, grain from the Slavic peoples. The Scandinavians were enriched with Arabian gold, pouring into their lands along the famous sea routes "from the Varangians to the Arabs" and "from the Varangians to the Greeks".