Tetanus - what is it? Causes, symptoms and methods of treatment of the disease
Tetanus is an extremely dangerous infectious disease.If there is no treatment for infection, the disease can lead to a mass of complications, including even death from suffocation. That is why many are interested in questions about why tetanus arises, what it is and how the infection occurs. After all, with timely assistance, such problems can be avoided.
Tetanus: what is it and what are its causes?
The causative agent of the disease is tetanusrod is a microscopic bacterium that lives in the gastrointestinal tract of herbivores. Together with faecal masses, a large number of spores from the intestines of diseased animals are allocated and a huge amount of spores that are extremely resistant to the influence of the external environment - they can retain their ability to live for years.
In the human body, the pathogen penetrates throughwounds, scratches and other damage to the skin. In some regions, tetanus is called "barefoot disease", since even a splinter in the foot or a scratch from the thorn can become a gateway to infection.
Tetanus: what is it and what are its symptoms?
The incubation period can last from 1 to 30days depending on the characteristics of the human body. Immediately it is worth noting that this is an extremely dangerous disease - tetanus affects the central nervous system, disrupting innervation of muscles. The first signs of the disease include increased irritability, headaches and sweating. After this, spasms of certain muscle groups begin.
As a rule, first appear seizureschewing muscles, in which the jaws of a person are so tense that it is difficult for him to open his mouth. Later, there is a spasm of muscular muscles, which is accompanied by the appearance of the so-called "sardonic smile". In addition, the patient experiences problems with swallowing, since the pharyngeal muscle fibers are also strained.
As the disease develops, crampsmore muscle groups, including the limbs and back. Sometimes the musculature of the back is so tense that the vertebrae are arched. In the absence of treatment, the spasm extends to the intercostal muscles, which provide respiratory movements of the chest - in such cases death from respiratory failure is not excluded.
Tetanus: what is it and what is it dangerous?
The disease can lead to a masscomplications. In the early stages, the development of sepsis, pneumonia and bronchitis. Some patients have seizures so strong that they lead to rupture of ligaments and muscles, dislocations and fractures of bones. Complications of the disease include heart attack and myocardial paralysis.
Even after recovery, patients often suffer from curvature of the spine, constant muscle weakness, joint stiffness and the consequences of the damage to certain nerves.
Tetanusand methods of treatment
First of all, it is necessary to cleanse the bodyof the toxins released into the blood by the pathogen. To this end, he is given tetanus antitetanus and immunomodulatory therapy is administered. Muscle relaxants and sedatives are used, which eliminate muscle spasm and facilitate the patient's condition. Patients with respiratory failure are temporarily connected to an artificial respiration apparatus.
It is worth noting that modern medicine offers a very effective measure of prevention - a tetanus vaccine.