Obninsk NPP - the legend of nuclear energy
Nuclear power plants are popular in the worldpower generation tool. To receive energy as a result of nuclear reactions has always been beneficial. After the accidents at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, at the Fukushima nuclear power plant, the world community began to worry about nuclear energy. Now nuclear power plants are used in 31 countries around the world. The leaders in the production of nuclear energy are the USA, France, Russia, China, South Korea. The world launched 411 nuclear reactors.
The first nuclear power plant in the world was the Obninsk nuclear power plant. They launched it in Obninsk, Kaluga region in 1954.
The history of the Obninsk nuclear power plant
As is known, in 1949 the Soviet Union producedtest the first Soviet atomic bomb. The tests were successful, and officials thought about the peaceful use of atomic energy. It was decided to build the first reactor for the peaceful use of the energy of nuclear reactions. As a result, the Obninsk nuclear power plant began to be built in the Kaluga region in 1950.
The planned capacity of the power plant was5000 kW. Four years later, in June 1954, the world's first nuclear power plant was put into operation. The production was multifunctional. The station produced not only electricity, but also heat. In addition, a research center for the study of nuclear reactions was organized on the territory of the Obninsk nuclear power plant.
Atomic race and power plant-based research
In the United States, they tried to overtake the USSR in the development of nuclear power.power engineering. American politicians and scientists did not recognize the industrial facility in Obninsk NPP, calling it a scientific center, rather. They claimed that the world's first nuclear power plant was the nuclear power plant in Shippingport, Pennsylvania, which was launched in 1958.
Who was right in fact? In favor of their version, Americans cited the fact that Obninsk NPP was not only not profitable, but data on the amount of thermal and electric energy it produced during the first years of its operation were not preserved.
Soviet scientists responded to this by saying that inthe first years of existence, the world's first power station operated in various test modes to determine the best mode of operation. Immediately after the launch, the Obninsk power plant consumed more electricity than it produced.
At the same facility, the crews of Soviet nuclear submarines were also trained.
Closing the station and rumors of an accident
Now the power plant is not operated. Its reactors were stopped forever in 2002. The fact is that for research purposes it was no longer suitable, in addition, due to outdated technologies and equipment, the station did not bring a profit.
The legend of nuclear energy has always been the object ofvarious rumors among the population. Among local residents, it is customary to assume that near the nuclear power plant the radiation background is higher than in other parts of the city. The population of Obninsk is still afraid of being exposed to radiation, therefore they bypass the power station by side. Often rumors of an accident, harmful emissions, radiation leakage and radioactive waste from the Obninsk nuclear power plant can be heard in the Moscow region and in Moscow. The strangest thing is that such conversations began to spread actively among the people after the closure of the power plant.
Museum on the basis of the station
At present, the most interesting museum of the atomicenergy in the territory of Russia is the Obninsk nuclear power plant. Excursions here are held regularly. Some facts about the station are especially interesting for visitors to this museum. For example, despite the closure of the power plant in 2002, it was never taken out of service officially. This gives rise to new rumors and talk about it.
It is well known that after the closureThe nuclear reactor was cleaned of radioactive fuel. The reactor was also partially dismantled. What happened to the graphite rods - the retarders of nuclear reactions - was not reported to the broad masses.
The more mysterious and interesting rumors, the moreThe number of visitors to the museum is attracted to the Obninsk nuclear power plant. A photo at the main entrance to the power plant inside the premises with control panels of the reactor makes many energy students who come here on an excursion every year.
Obninsk NPP is notable so muchtechnology and power generation. It is rather a symbol. The United States of America is famous for the fact that the world's first bombs exploded, the USSR, on the contrary, was the first in the world to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Obninsk NPP is a legendary enterprise not only and not so much because it became the first nuclear power plant in the world, it is the largest in those years research institute for the study of nuclear reactions and nuclear power in the USSR.