North War

Peter 1 carried out his reforms without thinking and notsystematizing them in advance. All the changes occurred in the intervals between various military worries, campaigns. The period when the Great Northern War was not an exception was not an exception.

Military actions against Sweden requiredtremendous tension of the whole state. That is why the entire Northern War under Peter 1, was accompanied by domestic activities. All internal changes were aimed at meeting military needs.

The Northern War required competently trainedofficers and soldiers. In connection with this, a military reform was carried out. Military schools have been set up, "Military Articles" and "Rotory ranks" have been published (new regulations), and a fleet has been organized.

The Northern War also demanded money. Peter 1 introduces a poll tax, new taxes. They touched upon reforms and the industrial sphere. The Northern War required uniforms, provisions, weapons. All the reforms carried out made it possible to improve the supply of the army, to begin building fortresses.

In 1700 on August 22 the Russian armywent on a campaign to the Swedish fortress. By autumn Narva was besieged. However, the siege was not entirely successful. The supply of gunpowder and cores was only fourteen days. The regiments were led in large part by foreign officers, who treated their duties very casually. In 1700 in November, the Swedes suddenly attacked the Russian positions, turning the army into flight. At the same time, two regiments (Semenovsky and Preobrazhensky), having retained the fighting order, fought back from the attackers, covering the flight of the whole army.

The Swedish king decided that the Russians were defeated, anddirected his forces against Poland. While Charles 12 made his Polish campaigns, Peter 1 actively engaged in the re-creation and reform of the army. New sets of soldiers began to appear in the newly formed regiments, the training of Russian officers. Over a year, more than 300 guns were cast. Partially casting was carried out from the removed bells from church belfries.

Activity of Peter very soon gave the result. In 1702 the Russian army captured Noteburg (ancient Oreshek) in autumn, another fortress of the Swedes Nyenskans was captured in the spring, near which the Peter and Paul Fortress was laid. Tarta (Derpt) and Narva fell in 1704.

At this time, Charles 12 after the defeat of Saxony and Poland, makes the Polish ruler Augustus 2 abandon his throne and alliance with Russia. Thus, Peter 1 was left without allies.

Resting after the conquest of Saxony, the armyThe Swedes at the end of 1707 went to Russia. The Swedes in December this year took Grodno, Mogilev. The urgent strengthening of Moscow began on Peter's orders. Before capturing the city, Karl was going to connect with the corps of Levenhaupt that had come to him from Riga. The corps came with supplies of weapons and food. However, in 1708, in September, the Russian army defeated Swedish reinforcements, seizing food and weapons. As a result of this struggle, only 7 thousand half-dressed and half-starved soldiers from the 16 thousand-strong corps came under the village of Lesnoy to Karl.

After this failure, the Swedish king laidgreat hopes for Ukraine. Hetman Mazepa, betraying the Russian state, in 1708 joined the Swedes. However, Mazepa brought only 2,000 warriors with him - Ukraine remained faithful to Russia, moreover, Ukrainian peasants against the Swedish troops began a popular movement.

There was a decisive battle near Poltava. In 1709 on June 27, the Swedes suffered an absolute defeat. The defeated forces fled to the Dnieper, to the south, where their remnants were captured by the corps of Menshikov. Mazepa, the Swedish king, several hundred Cossacks and Swedes fled to Turkey.

After 1709, Swedish military power was broken. The Northern War contributed to the fact that Russia became the most powerful power in Northern Europe.

In 1721 on August 30 between Sweden and Russiapeace was concluded. Under the treaty, Finland was returned to the Swedish side, while Russia received Karelia, Estland, Liflandia, and Ingria. Peter the Senate presented the imperial title, the title of "Great" and "Father of the Fatherland" in commemoration of victory. From that moment on, Russia became known as the Empire.

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