Insect killers: tick-borne encephalitis
Encephalitis is a serious viral disease,Affecting the central nervous system and the human brain. The main vector of the virus in our country is the encephalitis mite, which is found in the forests of the European part of Russia. The length of this arachnid tick is 2.5 to 4 mm in a hungry state and increases to 10 mm in the poured blood of the individual.
In its habitats, this arthropodthe parasite can not move long distances, therefore, sitting on grass, bushes or trees, along paths and pathways, waits for its prey. When a person or animal approaches a short distance, he moves to their clothes or wool.
Quietly moving around the body, the ticklooking for a place on the skin where you can safely adhere to the subcutaneous blood vessels, while not disturbing your carrier. In humans such places are located in the groin area, under the armpits, on the back and the back of the head. Encephalitic tick in dogs or other animals is usually sucked on the inside of the limbs, chin, neck and behind the ears.
To get to the blood vessels, the tickencephalic immerses its proboscis in the skin, highlighting in the wound a special saliva containing substances that dull the sensitivity of the nerves. Therefore, despite the deep penetration of the tick into the subcutaneous layers, it is virtually impossible to feel its bite. After sucking blood, the insect falls off its carrier independently to lay its eggs in the ground.
Together with saliva, the tick can enter the virus of the encephalitis into the blood of its victim. Therefore, these insects are so dangerous. In addition to encephalitis, mites can carry the pathogens of many other diseases.
However, not every tick of encephalitis is so dangerous. Typically, the virus is transmitted to mites when fed from infected animals. Therefore, the probability of catching an infected tick is very small. On the other hand, we must not forget about the danger that this virus carries.
At a bite of a tick, in the first place, it is necessarycarefully remove. In some cases, it is recommended to drop a little oil on the insect's body, it will become difficult for the mite to breathe and eventually it will fall off.
If the threat of encephalitis infection is high, thenIt is worth removing the tick as soon as possible. To do this, it is necessary to pick up the insect with tweezers, or tie it with a thread closer to the proboscis, and slightly rocking to remove its head from under the skin. If the proboscis is still cut off, then you can grab it with a pin. The bitten place must be treated with greenery, iodine or alcohol.
After removing the tick, the bitten person shouldconsult a doctor. The insect should also be referred to the nearest medical institution for examination. If it is determined that the infected tick was bitten, irrespective of the appearance of the symptoms of the disease, it is necessary to inject an immunoglobulin within 72 hours.
The first symptoms of a bite of an encephalitic tick are similar to the manifestation of influenza: chills and fever. At the next stage of the development of the disease, headaches begin, dizziness, nausea, vomiting.
Then comes a condition resembling arthrosis andarthritis with an ache in the joints and bones. Difficulty breathing, there is a heaviness in the whole body. The face and skin around the bite blush. If you do not go to the doctor in time, the further consequences of the virus damage will be irreversible.
To reduce the probability of bite and disease of tick-borne encephalitis to a minimum, it is necessary to apply a number of preventive measures:
- Going to the forest or park to wear as much as possible closed, tight clothes and always a headdress.
- Use repellents against tick bites.
- During outdoor recreation, inspect each other for ticks every 2 hours.
- Returning from a walk, you must examine yourself and your friends, especially in hard-to-reach places.
- Every three years to be vaccinated against tick-borne encephalitis.
- If the tick is still encephalitic, it is necessary to contact the nearest medical institution for help.