Impact of birds on power lines
In recent decades, structures, supports and wires of overhead lines (VL) have been perceived as “natural manifestations” of the environment, and therefore birds and animals are forced not only to put up with their ubiquitous presence, but also to actively engage in their own life cycles. Often on the supports of the bird they sit down to rest and die. Also everywhere there are cases of bird nesting on metal structures of overhead lines. According to various authors, the rook nests located on the VL supports (up to 50 nests on one support) caused emergency shutdowns (up to 15 VL outages during the nesting season). As visitors of the site belenegetics.ru calculated in some regions of Russia, for every 30 km of power lines there were up to 70 dead large birds, mainly eagles and storks.
Storks die most often at the end of the summer. The place of death is a meadow, a field, the edge of a forest. Only black storks, shocked by electric shocks, were found in the forest.In Grodno networks, a case was noted when during one night in 1986, the 110 kV overhead line was disconnected 5 times with successful automatic reclosing. When walking in two adjacent spans, 10 storks were struck by electric current.
Currently, all network districts of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus are taking measures to protect the overhead lines from birds. On the towers of 110-330 kV overhead lines, protective devices such as a pinwheel or a ruff made from a braided cable are installed. According to the data obtained, the percentage of VL protection ranges from 45 to 85-90%.
Issues of protection of birds on high voltage lines 35 kV and above should be considered in conjunction with the general requirements of environmental protection and environmental safety. When designing overhead lines and substation structures, it is necessary to avoid problems with finding damage in the electrical network and to take measures that practically exclude the placement of large birds (storks, eagles) in dangerous places.
The most effective protective solutions for intermediate poles of software of kV and above is the installation on traverses above cones of insulating material. The optimal design and dimensions of protection are determined.
The turntables and panicles currently used in the Republic of Belarus are not sufficiently effective andmust be modernized. The size of the turntables design RUE "Belenergosetproekt" should be increased by 2-2.5 times. If there are protective brooms from the cable on the overhead line, it is necessary to unravel the cable for a length of up to 40 cm and dissolve the wire throughout the entire space (hemisphere).