How to make water in the country from the well: the device and the equipment used
The construction on the summer cottage of the local water supply system will make it possible to forget about the main inconvenience of suburban life — the absence or lack of water. But to arrange a water supply system in the country from a well is simple enough, especially since the water intake for servicing one plot of land does not necessarily have a large flow rate. Getting the right amount of water at a convenient point is very convenient, right?
Independent masters who want to increase the level of country comfort, with our help, will easily cope with the arrangement of the site. After reviewing the information provided for consideration, you will be able to independently make an autonomous water supply system that delivers water without fail in convenient places for use.
The article proposed for review contains a detailed description of the equipment required for the assembly and installation of a private system, the principle of operation and the purpose of each device.The technology of work with step-by-step detailing is described in detail. Valuable information and recommendations are supplemented with photo clips, diagrams and video reviews.
Types of tubular water wells
A well is the production of a circular section, drilled without human access to the face. The diameter of such development is always much smaller than its depth. Two types of wells are used to make water intake.
Filter or "wells on sand"
The depth of such workings does not exceed 35 m. They are drilled on the closely lying aquifer, which is located in sandy soils.
Such a well is a casing assembled from pipes with a diameter of 127 to 133 mm. It is usually equipped with a bow filter screen, but there may be other options. Filter wells have a small debit, most often it does not exceed one cubic meter of water per hour.
The advantage of such structures is the speed and relative cheapness of their drilling. Experts will cope with the work in just a day or two. The main disadvantage is the silting tendency.
Therefore, it is very important to use such a well regularly, the life of the structure depends on it. Depending on the thickness of the aquifer and the intensity of use of the well, it can last up to 15 years, in some cases even longer.
Artesian or "wells on limestone"
Deep structures that are drilled to the water carrier, common in fractured limestone. It is about 20-130 m deep. Unlike wells, artesian sands have a higher debit. It can reach up to 100 cubic meters of water per hour.
Drilling wells for limestone is quite difficult, and the casing has a considerable length.The drilling procedure lasts four or more days.
Accordingly, the cost of work and materials is significantly higher. The advantage of artesian wells is their long life. They do not need a filter, because the host rock does not contain small clay and sand particles. Thus, the silting of the well does not occur, because it can last much longer than the filter, five dozen or even more years.
Choosing a pump for pumping water
The pump is a kind of "heart" of the system. Uninterrupted work of the future water supply system depends on the correctness of its selection. On sale you can find several types of pumps submersible and surface categories.
Depth and surface aggregates
The latter are so called because the pump itself is removed from the pumped liquid. The body of the unit is located on land, and the water intake is performed by a hose lowered into the well.
Surface pumps can extract water from an average depth of 8 to 10 meters, so they are rarely used for wells. Most often, submersible devices are installed for water supply.Their main difference from the surface - full immersion. Their design is specifically designed for large depths, where they are used as efficiently as possible.
Submersible borehole pumps are divided into two types. In the case of centrifugal devices the shaft is mounted, on which paddle wheels with blades are fixed. When the shaft begins to rotate, the movement of the blades creates a centrifugal force that pumps the fluid that fills the interior of the device. Taki pumps are reliable and versatile to use.
In addition, centrifugal mechanisms are distinguished by an optimal price / quality ratio. Vortex pumps are considered the most practical option. In addition to low cost, they attract the utmost simplicity of design and unpretentiousness in operation and maintenance. The basis of the device is a membrane with liquid on one side and a vibrator on the other.
After switching on, the latter starts to move and causes the membrane to deform, thereby creating a pressure difference. That, in turn, starts the process of pumping fluid.The mechanism is devoid of rotating elements and bearings, which are particularly vulnerable and require constant monitoring and lubrication. The absence of rotating elements significantly reduces the heating of the device and prolongs its service life.
For artesian wells, a special deep well pump will be the best choice. They are specifically designed to work at great depths where surface pumps, even if equipped with an ejector, cannot function. The installation of the depth gauge is rather complicated, as well as its dismantling. Properly selected and installed high-quality device will work for decades.
A cheaper counterfeit with such a load is unlikely to cope and will require repair. However, it should be understood that in the case of a submersible pump, the cost of only dismantling it can be quite comparable with the cost of the device. Therefore, it is necessary to purchase only high-quality device.
Experts identify several criteria that must be taken into account when choosing a mechanism.
The total depth of production and the water level in it
Key characteristics when choosing a pump. The technical documentation must indicate the optimal depth for which the device is intended to work.
Failure to comply with this requirement will cause the device to work inefficiently and may quickly fail. In the passport of the well should be indicated and its depth and water level. They can only be compared with the characteristics of the pump.
If there is no such data, you can use a very simple way to measure the depth of the structure. We take a long dry rope, tie a small weight on its end and lower it into the well. Pull the rope down until the weight touches the bottom. Remove the cable. We measure the dry part - it will be the distance from the top to the water level. The wet part is the height of the water column.
Approximate debit of water intake source
This is the name for the mass of water that can be obtained from a well over a certain period of time. In the passport drillers indicate this value, but if not, we conduct approximate calculations.
We completely pump out the water from the well and measure the time during which we did it.Then we measure the time during which the well is filled with water. We divide the second result by the first and get an approximate debit, which will be enough to choose a pump.
How to determine the debit of a well and choose a pump, video will show:
Estimated Water Requirement
Different pumps can supply water at speeds from 20 to 200 liters per minute. In order not to overpay for a more powerful model, it is important to correctly calculate your own need for water. On average, it is estimated that one person needs about 200 liters of water per day, so a family of three to four people needs a pump with a capacity of 30 to 50 liters per minute.
Some people prefer to take the device with a “margin” of power, which will inevitably affect its cost. If it is planned that the pump will work not only for servicing household needs, but also for irrigation, an increase in its capacity should be calculated. It will depend on the size of the site, but on average should be about 2000 liters per day. Thus it is necessary to increase the need for water by 40-50 l / min.
Required to work appliances pressure
In the passport of the pump must indicate the pressure. In order to calculate the required head, we add another 30 more to the depth of our well, expressed in meters. So we will get the height of the water column.
The result is increased by another 10% and we get the desired value. Comparing it with the pump data, choose a model. If there is no exact match, “move” upwards.
Diameter of the drilled well
Another important quantity that determines pump power. Like others, it can be taken in the well passport or measured independently. It should be noted that the diameter of the well must be expressed in inches, where the inch is 2.54 cm. The vast majority of pumps are designed to work in 4-inch wells. For 3-inch, most likely, you will have to order the pump in the catalog.
Equipment for autonomous water supply
For the arrangement of the water supply from the well besides the pump, we will need other special equipment necessary for the normal functioning of the structure.
Sealed tank to protect the tip
An important structural element for well development is a caisson. This is a sealed chamber in which is located the tip of the well. It protects the structure from freezing in the cold season and from the penetration of groundwater.
In addition, inside the tank is all the necessary equipment for the functioning of the well. Therefore, the size of the caisson should be sufficient to fit inside the devices and descended for maintenance or repair people.
The hermetic chamber can be made of different materials: plastic, concrete, metal, brick or polymer sandpaper. Each of the options has its advantages and disadvantages.
The shape of the container can be any, but most often it has a circular or quadrangular cross section. The caisson can be bought off-the-shelf or made by yourself. In any case, the tank should be equipped with a hatch with a tight lid.
With the arrangement of the caisson for an autonomous water source will introduce the video:
Hydroaccumulator for the formation of pressure
The device is a container divided by an elastic membrane. One of the resulting compartments is filled with air, the second - with water. The water entering the tank stretches the membrane, thereby reducing the volume of the first compartment.
The more water, the higher the pressure in the first chamber. After the consumer opens the tap, the amount of water decreases and the pressure in the air compartment decreases.
The accumulator is supplemented with a sensor that monitors the pressure in the chambers. When it falls below the set point, the device sends a signal to turn on the pump and water from the well enters the system. As soon as the pressure rises to a certain level, the pump shuts off. A hydroaccumulator is used to create a pressure in the water line sufficient to operate household appliances.
Some of them, for example, instantaneous water heaters, dishwashers and washing machines need a pressure of at least 0.5-0.7 atmospheres.
In addition, the device protects the pump from premature wear. Without the accumulator, the equipment will turn on too often. And this is extremely undesirable for him, because turning on a pump more often than 10 times per minute increases its wear by 40%.
Filter system for water treatment
Filters are required for wells of any type. Even deep artesian "give out" water with a high content of iron, heavy metals and other not useful trace elements. Therefore, the purification of such water is necessary.
It is possible to pick up the necessary type of the filter only after carrying out the analysis of water. A complete cleaning system in the maximum configuration will look like this:
- Pre-screen strainer. It is placed in front of the pump and in front of the hydroaccumulator.
- Mechanical cleaning filter. The device delays inclusions in the size of 80-100 microns. Represents a flask with a replaceable fibrous filler.
- Aeration block. Oxygenates the water that passes through it.
- A set of special filters.Each of them eliminates the excess of a particular element: iron, potassium, sodium, salts, etc.
- Biological protection unit. It is a carbon filter or ultraviolet emitter that removes microorganisms from water.
- Fine filter. Stops inclusions up to 5 microns in size, which completely eliminates precipitation and impurities from the liquid.
As a supplement, a reverse osmosis filter can be installed, which makes it possible to obtain drinking water of the highest quality.
Technology of construction of the plumbing system
After all the necessary equipment has been purchased and the well has been drilled, you can proceed to the construction of the water supply system.
Stage # 1: laying pipes from the house to the well
We determine the area on which the pipeline will be located, and proceed to digging the trench. Its depth should be greater than the level of soil freezing in this area by 20–30 cm. This is a very important requirement. Its failure threatens to freeze and destroy the system during the cold season.
We lay a sand cushion on the bottom of the excavated trench; on it is a 32 mm water pipe made of cross-linked polyethylene or metal-plastic.
Alternatively, you can lay a PD pipe, but it collapses when frozen, which is impossible to exclude.Some "experts" instead of the pipeline laid in a trench hose for supplying water.
If you do not want to get problems with the operation of the water supply, you should not do it. Particular attention is paid to the pipeline lifting section to the house. Be sure to warm the foundation and wrap the pipe with a special material.
It is possible to use a self-regulating heating cable for insulation, which is laid along the pipe at the lifting point. The same method is used in the case when, for any reason, it is impossible to carry out land work on the site.
Then dig a shallow trench under the pipe and put them together with the heating cable. Elements are wrapped with insulating material and placed in a pipe of a larger diameter.
In addition, the cumulative capacity for irrigation can be added to the resulting system. Because warm water has a beneficial effect on plants.
When laying the water pipe, we do not forget to lay the cable that supplies electricity to the pump.It must be four-core and have a cross section of at least 2.5. The ROM box is placed in a specially designated place in a heated room.
Stage # 2: Installation Rules for Caisson
Installation of the caisson depends on what material the container is made of. The easiest way to install plastic and polymer sandwich containers. In any case, first we prepare the pit, which should be larger than the camera itself.
In some cases, at the bottom of the pit we mount a concrete pad. Then set the caisson in place and level by level. In the case of a plastic container, we also fasten it.
Self-made concrete chambers are assembled from rings or poured into formwork assembled on site. Brick tanks laid out directly in the pit. At the end of the work in the caisson we start water pipes and cable, the input sections are reliably sealed. We lower and install the equipment for the well. If necessary, we carry out the backfilling of the installed caisson.
Stage # 3: mounting and connecting the pump
Before starting the installation of the mechanism, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the recommendations of the manufacturer. We start with cleaning the well. We pump the water out of it until the sand and other particles of pollution stop coming out.
To fix the pump in the borehole, use 4 mm steel cable of the desired length or 5 mm nylon cord. Securely fasten it to the case. In addition, we connect the pump with a water pipe.
We perform all operations very carefully so that later no seizure of the pump in the casing takes place. For the normal functioning of the system, a check valve is necessary for the pump, which will not allow water from the pipeline to return to the well.
Some models are already equipped with such a device, if not, install the node. We put on the lower part of the tip with a seal on the well pipe.
Now you can gently lower the pump into the well. We do this carefully, without jerking and do not forget to fix the electrical cable, the feed pump, to the water pipe every meter and a half.
The wire must lie free, without tension.After the pump touches the bottom, raise it to a height of one to three meters and fix it. Now set in place the upper part of the tip.
We connect to the plumbing and electrical cable all equipment located in the caisson: water purification system, valves, automation, etc. In the course of work, we strictly follow all the recommendations of the instrument manufacturer. After connecting, we once again check the reliability and tightness of the connections of the water supply pipeline and electrical safety of the newly assembled system.
Stage # 4: installation and connection of the accumulator
The volume of the accumulator can be very different: from 10 to 200 liters. Depending on it, the place where the equipment will be installed is selected. It can be either a caisson or a basement at home.
When choosing an installation site, it is necessary to take into account the need to ensure free access to the device for subsequent maintenance, repair, or possible replacement of a failed container.
During the installation of the hydroaccumulator, a check valve is necessarily installed to prevent water from flowing from the plumbing system to the tank.It is placed in the direction of the fluid. Mounted and drain valve designed for emergency discharge of water from the tank. To reduce the level of vibration from a working device, we mount it using a special rubber seal.
We connect the water supply pipe to the accumulator. We assemble the starter that will power the pumping equipment. We connect a sensor to the hydroaccumulator, which will control the pressure in the compartments of the tank, and feed the starter through it. We connect the hydroaccumulator to the internal water supply system, directly or through a collector.
Stage # 5: Perform a system test run
After the installation and connection of all elements of the system have been carried out, it is possible to proceed with its test run. First, we activate the pump and, if necessary, debug its work.
Then we fill the storage tank with water and check the accuracy of the automatic start and shutdown of the pump.Then carefully inspect the entire pipeline.
We need to identify possible leaks. If there are any, we carry out repairs. In addition, we check the work of all plumbing devices connected to the water supply. Pay attention to the performance of the system: the water pressure must be normal even with all open taps. If the test run was successful and the system works without failures, bury the trench, supplying water from the well to the house.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The options of an autonomous water supply construction checked in practice are presented in video:
Independently collect water from a well - the task is rather complicated. It is important to choose the right equipment for the type of well, correctly install it and connect it.
In the absence of experience of similar works, it is worth entrusting them to specialists who will quickly and correctly equip the system. The owner will only enjoy the comfort of his home, equipped with an autonomous water supply system.