How to make a warm floor under the tile: the rules of laying + installation guide
Installation of heated floors is possible in rooms with high ceilings. Most often they are mounted in the bathroom, but a warm floor under the tile can be installed over the entire area of the apartment.
There are several methods of heating that need to be chosen individually, depending on the height of the ceilings, the condition of the wiring and the water pressure in the apartment or country house. The most popular heating mats, which are easy to install.
Varieties of warm floor
Before you start choosing a floor heating system, you need to consider that they have limitations. Despite the fact that heating systems are able to completely replace the heating in an apartment, this cannot be done according to the norms of the Russian legislation.
These restrictions are due to several reasons:
- The apartments are allowed to use only electric heated floor, and the massive use of such systems in the house leads to an increase in the load on the electrical network.
- Mass or partial transition to electric heating leads to an imbalance in the heat supply system in the house.
Since the floor will not be used as the main source of heat in the apartment, you can save on its installation. The savings consist in laying a heating cable or film only in places that are free of furniture.
In a private home, the possibilities of using this technology are much wider. Depending on the available energy sources, you can choose an acceptable option between water and electric heating. If the house is provided with autonomous sources of electricity, such as wind generators or solar panels, it is undoubtedly worth making a choice in favor of electric, i.e. cable or infrared heating systems.
If electricity is supplied by power lines, the use of an electric variant of heating a private house will be very expensive. In this case, it is better to make a choice in favor of a water heated floor.It will last about 35 years, after which it will require replacement.
Basic rules for installing underfloor heating
Despite the different principle of heating, there are several basic principles for installing all types of underfloor heating under floor tiles. The first general rule is to remove the old screed after directly dismantling the cover. This allows you to win a few centimeters of the height of the room, which is especially important in apartments with low ceilings or if the heating is mounted only in one room.
For waterproofing, you can use special compositions, such as liquid glass or bitumen. Special attention should be paid to the bathrooms. If moisture enters through the screed, this will lead to the gradual destruction of the concrete. This is true for private houses and apartments.
After waterproofing, you need to make thermal insulation. Its thickness is determined individually, depending on the height of the ceilings and the level of Plov difference between rooms. The thinner the layer of insulation, the greater the heat loss will be.
Another rule is the need to reinforce the floor under the tile. For this, ready-made reinforced mesh with a wire thickness of not more than 6 mm.
Mixes with gypsum base can not be used to fill the floor screed under the tile. They are too fragile and not suitable for pressure.In addition to fragility, they do not possess the properties required for adhesion to tile adhesive.
It is necessary to use leveling mixtures such as self-leveling floor. They give the best effect, since the surface is smooth and suitable for laying tile with minimal consumption of adhesive solution.
Rules for laying cable floor heating
Before installing a new equipment that will create a load on the wiring in the apartment or house, you need to make sure that the wiring will withstand it. First you need to make a markup where the electric mats will run.
When planning in an apartment, it is necessary to exclude laying in the locations of permanently installed large furniture without legs, sanitary appliances and household appliances. This is due to the fact that electricity creates a magnetic field that will interfere with household appliances.
When planning, you also can not lay electric heating in the locations of water and gas pipes.
Determination of power, cable section and wiring in the house
The minimum distance from each wall should be at least 10 cm. You also need to exclude areas where the furniture is installed. The area for installation of mats is calculated by subtracting from the total area the sum of square meters, where the installation will not be made.
The resulting number must be multiplied by 140 W, if the floor will not be used as the main source of heat supply. If you plan to use only the floor for heating, then you need to multiply by 180 watts. Based on the data obtained, you can purchase a cable or electric mats for floor heating.
With regard to wiring, it is necessary to calculate the total power devices that are used in the apartment. This information can be found instructions for the technique, and it is also duplicated on the body of devices.
Aluminum is not suitable for wiring a house where it is planned to install a floor heating system. This is because copper has better thermal conductivity.According to the table you also need to determine the strength of the current and put the machines on the electricity meter.
If the wiring in the apartment does not meet the required specifications, it must be replaced before installing the heating cable or mats. If this is not done, then the apartment will periodically turn off the electricity, and then the sockets will begin to melt. Ultimately, this will cause a short circuit and fire. This is dangerous and should not be saved on security, especially if the house or apartment is made of combustible materials.
Installation of mats and installation of a control system
The installation of electrical mats is easier and faster than cable installation. It is enough to place them on the heating area, which was determined when drawing up the scheme.
This will ensure a uniform level of heating of the floor surface. It is not recommended to break the cable during installation.
After laying the cable you need to install a thermostat.It performs an important function - maintaining the desired floor temperature. This allows you to reduce energy consumption, since periodically the heating will turn off when the set temperature is reached. If the temperature sensor detects a decrease in the user-defined mode, the heating will automatically turn on.
The hole must be above 30 cm from the floor surface. A vertical channel is creased down from the hole where the corrugation for the temperature sensor will be installed. The opposite end of the corrugations should be located between the turns of the heating cable at an equal distance. If you do not follow this rule, the sensor will be overestimated.
When connecting the heating cable to the control unit, you must follow the instructions from the manufacturer of the equipment. Before connecting, check the resistance of the wires with a special device.
Rules for laying infrared floor heating
Infrared underfloor heating is also installed just like electric mats. But between them there is a difference. When connecting a film heater, a parallel rather than a parallel connection is used. From a constructive point of view, this is a more reliable method, since when a module fails separately, the rest will continue to function.
The film must be laid with a small overlap, strictly following the markup. Between themselves, the modules are fastened with a molar tape. This is a temporary mounting method, since after pouring with a self-leveling floor, the need for mounting will disappear.
Installation Guide for Electric Underfloor Heating
The quality of the coating depends on the condition of the foundation on which it is to be laid. Work should begin with dismantling the old coating.Everything must be dismantled, including the old screed.
After removing the old coating, it is necessary to remove all the fine dust and dust. After that, you need to inspect the floor area and in the presence of cracks, they must be repaired. When the surface of the floor is prepared, you can proceed to waterproofing and insulation.
Installation of insulation under the electric floor
Insulation should be laid on the prepared base. It is preferable to use cork sheets. They have sufficient density and do not sag under the weight of the screed, as it happens withpolystyrene foam. The use of low-density insulation will result in the need to dismantle the finished floor due to the material damping.
Fastening insulation to the surface occurs by sticking to bitumen mastic.Through the use of this material is achieved not only fixing cork sheets, but also waterproofing. From the quality of sticking also depends on the life of underfloor heating. After waiting 5-6 hours, you can proceed to pouring the screed. The thickness of the screed must be at least 3 cm.
When using a self-leveling floor there is no need for leveling by the rule, as it happens with self-mixed cement mortars. After work, leave the surface to dry completely, for about 3-4 days.
Laying heating mats
After solidification of the bulk solution, you can proceed to the installation of a heated floor under the tile. First you need to chalk outlines the places in which the mats will not be installed. This will help to navigate and not make waste of material.
After installing the mats, you need to proceed with the installation of the control unit and the temperature sensor. Connect the control unit must be in strict accordance with the scheme and the color marking of the wires, which are provided by the manufacturer.
A special corrugation is laid down from the control unit, where the temperature sensor will be placed. The end of the corrugations, which is located between the heating mats, must be tightly sealed.
When the installation of electronics is complete, you need to turn on the system and check its operation. If there are no defects in the heating system, you can start pouring the last layer of the screed. The required fill level should be noted on the wall to make it easier to navigate.
The minimum thickness of the screed is 4 cm. When pouring a self-leveling floor, you need to monitor the uniform distribution of the liquid. To move the excess solution, you can use a roller. After pouring, you need to wait a few days until completely dry. At this time, you need to control the temperature of the air in the apartment. If the air is dry and hot, there is a risk of cracking the screed. It is possible to start laying of a tile only after full drying of a bulk floor.
How to cut floor tiles
Manual tile cutter is excellent for working with floor tiles. To work with him you need to prepare a tile in advance. The tile is pre-soaked, if indicated by the manufacturer. If there are no such recommendations, it is enough to wipe the tiles with a damp cloth. This is necessary to clean the surface over which the cutting element of the tool will move.
This is done as needed, in places where masonry is approaching a wall or a corner. If plumbing or heating pipes come out of the floor, then it will be necessary to make shaped holes in the tile. To do this, use a manual cutter. Holes made with it may have jagged edges. To eliminate the aesthetic defect, it is necessary to process the edges with emery paper.
How to lay tiles on a heated floor
It is necessary to begin the work on facing the floor with tiles with the marking, which is largely determined by the type of masonry.The most common options for laying tile are diagonal and straight. Which way to choose depends on the interior design and the geometric features of the room.
On top of the adhesive mortar is laid and leveled tile. Periodically it is necessary to check whether there is no slope. This is done using a building level. The level should not be longer than 60 cm, since with a longer length, the error in the readings increases. To keep the equal distance between the tiles, you must use plastic crosses.
Their standard size is 2 mm. If the tile is large, you can use a larger size. Crosses that adjust the height are removed, and those that border on four tiles are not dismantled after laying, but hide when grouting. For grouting, special formulations are used, painted to match the lined surface. Work on grouting can be done only after the adhesive has hardened.
Varnishing a finished tile floor
To save tile in its original form, you need to take care of varnishing. This simple procedure will prevent the need to replace the tile. Especially lacquering is important for matte tiles, which are often used for the bathroom floor, as it does not slip.
When the first coat of varnish is applied, it is necessary to open the window in the mode of ventilation, as well as close the door to the room. After complete drying, which occurs after 6-8 hours (depending on the varnish composition), it is necessary to repeat the procedure again.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How to mount the control unit:
How to lay a heated floor in rooms with small heat loss:
What happens if you do not fix the insulation:
What to look for when designing a house:
Proper installation of underfloor heating systems for laying floor ceramics will significantly prolong its service life.Most often, electronics fails, which is easy to replace and continue to use underfloor heating. You need to carefully select the manufacturer of heating systems. In the event of a breakdown of the control unit, the new one will be difficult to reach if the manufacturer stops producing heating systems. Temperature sensors are easier to pick up, since they are interchangeable in many models.