Glycemia - what is it? Blood glucose level, abnormalities and their causes
Blood is called liquid mobile tissue insideorganism. It continuously moves through a closed circle of veins and blood vessels, performing many useful functions. Blood has many indicators, and one of them is glycemia. What it is? What are its symptoms and treatment? All the answers you will find in this article.
Glycemia - what is it?
The human body is a complex system. One of the most important concepts for him is glycemia. What it is? The word has a Greek origin and includes two parts, translated as: "blood" and "sweet." In other words, glycemia is the most important variable in a living organism that can be regulated and denotes the blood glucose-carbohydrate content, which is the most important and universal source of energy for cells and tissues (more than 50% of the energy consumed by the body is produced by oxidizing it substance).
The obligatory condition of this indicator isstability. Otherwise, the brain simply ceases to function properly. What is the normal threshold of such characteristics of an organism as glycemia? The norm is between 3.4 and 5.5 mmol per liter of blood.
If the blood glucose level drops tocritical mark or sharply increase, then a person can lose consciousness, begin to fight in cramps. Coma is a particularly difficult result of increasing or lowering the sugar level.
The term "glycemia"
In the XIX century, the physiologist from France Claude Bernard, to designate an indicator of the glucose or sugar content in the blood of a living organism, proposed the term described.
The level of glycemia may be normal, elevated or decreased. The limits of the norm of blood sugar concentration are from 3.5 to 5.5 mmol / l.
The correct mode of operation of the brain and the whole organismdepends on the stability of this indicator. If the blood glucose level is lowered, then they talk about hypoglycemia, and if it is higher than normal - about hyperglycemia. Both these states are dangerous, because going beyond the limits of critical coefficients is fraught with fainting and even coma.
If the concentration of glucose in the blood withinnorms, the symptoms of glycemia do not appear, because the body copes well with the loads and functions correctly. The most diverse pathologies appear only when the norm is violated.
Increased and lowered glycemia: what is it?
If the digits of the permissible value are exceeded, thenhyperglycemia is manifested. This condition primarily corresponds to people with diabetes. Because of the lack of their own insulin, in the blood of these patients after eating, the sugar ratio rises.
A lack of it in the body is calledhypoglycemia. It should be noted that this condition is typical for absolutely healthy people with a strict diet or excessive physical exertion. In addition, patients with diabetes mellitus may also suffer from hypoglycemia if there is an overdose of a hypoglycemic drug or the dosage of insulin is incorrectly selected.
Sugar glycemia with elevated glucose levels is called hyperglycemia. Her symptoms may be:
- strong thirst;
- frequent urination;
- fast fatiguability;
- in severe cases, loss of consciousness or coma may occur.
If there is not enough sugar in the blood, then this is called hypoglycemia. Among her symptoms:
- a strong sense of hunger;
- violation of general coordination of movements;
- general weakness;
- possible loss of consciousness or coma.
How to determine the level of glycemia?
There are two main ways to determine the level of sugar in the blood. The first is a test for glucose tolerance, the second is the measurement of glucose concentration by a blood test.
The first indicator that doctors reveal isviolation of the level of glycemia on an empty stomach, but it does not always indicate the presence of the disease. This is a very common method, which consists in determining the amount of sugar in the capillary blood after fasting for eight hours. Blood is taken from the finger in the morning after sleep.
NNS (impaired fasting glycemia) is calleda state where the glucose present in the blood (in the plasma) on an empty stomach appears to be above the normal level, but below the threshold value, which is a diagnostic sign of diabetes. For example, a limit of 6.4 mmol / l is considered as a boundary value.
Remember that in order to confirm the forecastsand to put accurate diagnoses, it is necessary to conduct similar studies at least two times. They should be held on different days to avoid situational errors. In addition, to obtain reliable results it is important not to take hormonal drugs.
An additional test is a test for sugar tolerance. As a rule, it is spent for specification of diagnoses. With this sample, the procedure is as follows:
- a standard blood glucose test for fasting;
- the test oral intake of 75 grams of glucose (usually in the form of an aqueous solution);
- after two hours, a repeated fence and a blood test are performed.
The obtained indicators are considered normal ifthey do not reach 7.8 mmol / l. A characteristic symptom of diabetes is glucose concentration exceeding 10.3 mmol / l. At a rate of 10.3 mmol / l, it is suggested to undergo additional examinations.
Glycemia: what to do?
If necessary, the doctor prescribes the treatment of glycemia.
However, with this disease, the most important thing -observe the right diet. Patients with diabetes mellitus should take special care and attention to such characteristics of food, as glycemic index. The pledge of good health is eating low-index food.
No less important is the diet. And in the case of hyperglycemia, and in the case of hypoglycemia, it is necessary to use complex carbohydrates (foods that are absorbed into the body longer and at the same time provide energy for a long period of time), there is often, but little by little. Also in foods must be limited to fats and contain a large amount of protein.
If you have a violation of glycemia,treatment is appointed by the doctor. The basis of all therapeutic actions is the adjustment of the patient's lifestyle. In severe cases, the use of medications is possible. Compliance with diet is a fundamental factor in the treatment of glycemia.
People with diabetes need moreselectively approach the choice of food: you need to eat only food that is characterized by a low glycemic index. And with increased, and with a lowered level of glucose, one must adhere to a fractional diet: there is little, but often.
From the menu it is necessary to exclude completely "bad"carbohydrates, (for example, white flour and sugar) and limit the amount of fat. The basis of the diet should be complex carbohydrates - substances that provide the body with energy for a fairly long time. Also, in a sufficient amount should be the content of protein in food.
Competently organized physical activity and further weight loss is no less important factor in the treatment of glycemia.
Often signs of a violation of the amount of sugar inthe blood does not appear at all or is associated with other diseases and is detected at random. In such situations it is impossible to refuse treatment, even if the patient is subjectively well. It should be noted that sometimes glycemia is caused by heredity, and those who are predisposed to such diseases are advised to regularly make a blood test.