Equipment for cutting pipes: types of tools and features of their application
In the manufacture and installation of pipe products for various purposes, special equipment for cutting pipes is used. It allows you to carve out from the base blank a fragment of the required size.
The design of the device consists of a thrust housing and cutting rollers. The force transmitted through the lever acts on the cutting roller and converts the pressure created on the pipe cutter body into rotational movements. The result is an even neat cut, making it easy and convenient to connect a separate part of the pipe to the overall system.
Classification of modern pipe cutters
Tools designed for cutting pipes, first of all, differ from each other in power and ability to work with materials of different densities.
Universal pipe cutters calmly withstand high loads and easily cope with thick-walled steel and cast-iron pipes with a diameter of up to 12 mm.This class also includes progressive devices equipped with a clamp clamp. Thanks to her, the tool becomes stronger and easily cuts a pipe with a diameter of up to 324 mm.
The second group includes equipment designed to work with tubular products of a thinner material: brass, copper and stainless steel. Plastic and metal-plastic pipes are usually cut with the same tool, especially when it is necessary to observe the most accurate dimensions and to obtain an ideal straight cut at the output.
The third category includes units for processing fragile material prone to crumbling. They are used for cutting ceramic, concrete and asbestos-cement pipes. The tool provides a neat and smooth cut line and does not knock pieces out of the edge.
For personal purposes, equipment with a mechanical lever drive is more suitable for performing one-time repair and installation work. Electrical tools of this class are mainly used for regular work of a mass nature (provision of services for laying sewage, gas and water supply, etc.).
Contact with the cutting unit requires certain skills and professional abilities, therefore it is rarely used in everyday life.
Design features of cutting equipment
An important distinguishing feature of pipe cutters is the number of cutting rollers. The simplest option has only one sharply honed roller and two guides. Such a tool is suitable for cutting pipes with a diameter of 15-50 mm and requires considerable physical effort from an employee. The cut is not very clear and almost always requires mandatory additional processing and removal of external and internal burrs.
Three-roller unit demonstrates high speed and performance.Easily handles pipe material with a diameter of up to 100 mm. The edge of the cut makes it crisp, smooth and smooth. Additionally, polishing the surface or remove the error is not required.
Four-pipe cutter easily copes with the active work and can withstand intense load. Quickly and cleanly cuts the tube, leaving behind almost a perfect cut. The manual model, depending on the manufacturer, is equipped with an additional convenient handle that allows you to work in pairs and cut the pipe material of large diameter.
Technical characteristics and principle of operation
The market for construction equipment today offers four types of pipe cutters for use: mechanical, manual, electromechanical and electrical.
Manual units are considered the easiest and cheapest. Most often used in everyday life for one-time repair and installation work. They function only at the expense of human muscle strength. They have an ergonomic handle that ensures the most efficient conversion of effort into a result. Do not require complex care, are highly durable and serve reliably for many years.
Electric pipe cutters are characterized by increased performance, make a better, even cut and do not force the master to make significant efforts to perform the necessary actions.
How different types of pipe cutters work
By the principle of operation, the tool for cutting pipes is divided into four subclasses.
- Hand heldwork under the direct influence of a person’s physical strength and do not require any specific skills from the user.
- Electrichave an internal engine that starts the unit into operation. Compact models of small and medium power suitable for domestic use, and massive cope with large-scale tasks and high loads. Equipped with a roller system for holding and rotating pipe material. The cutting disc, made of high-strength alloy, is fed to the cutting area in manual mode or using the built-in drive.
- PneumaticLarge-diameter pipes are cut quickly and with high quality using cutters for contact with materials of different density, ranging from thin polymer plastic to iron.They are mainly used for industrial work, as they are cumbersome and heavy. They are transported to the place of work on special carts and need qualified service of trained personnel.
- Hydraulicconsist of a rod, a piston and a hydraulic pump. For full functioning, they do not need electric current, as they use the principle of fluid pressure in their work. The internal pump creates an impact on the piston, which drives the mechanism. When the water pressure drops, the incisors return to their original positions. The device is significantly superior in power to the manual models, but inferior to the equipment that runs on electrics.
One cannot say which instrument is better and which one is worse. Each of the above options has its own advantages and is used depending on the objectives and type of pipe material used.
What are mechanical pipe cutters
Mechanical pipe cutters have some structural features and distinctive features. Roller models carry out trimming by turning the unit around the pipe.At this moment, the cutting part removes the metal layer, and the carriage with guide rollers is controlled by a moving screw handle and presses the disk to the treated pipe with the necessary force.
Detachable clamping devices are designed so that they can completely cover the pipe during the trimming process. The cutting elements are placed in pairs in the clamping and fixed parts of the unit. Thanks to this design, the load is distributed over the surface evenly and the trimming is accurate and precise. Most often, such tools are used for cutting pipes in confined spaces.
In chain models there are no volumetric elements and rotating parts. Working discs, fastened in a free chain, wrapped around the pipe diameter. Mechanics or hydraulics create tension and squeeze the part in the right place.The metal is not cut, but breaks, and the edge is quite clear and even.
In mechanical rotary pipe cutters, the cutting parts are arranged symmetrically in two fragments of a detachable design. The ring of such a unit is so large that it provides for the processing of pipe material with a diameter of up to 1000 mm.
Pistol type equipment is suitable for cutting pipes made from polymer plastic. The cut is carried out not by knives, but by sharply honed blades made of high-strength, hardened steel. The edge turns out smooth and does not require subsequent additional processing with sandpaper or any other grinding tool.
Depending on the expected scope of work and the density of the material being processed, it is necessary to choose the type of tool suitable for you.
The principle of operation of the cutting elements of the pipe cutter
Structural pipe cutters differ from each other and differently cut off the pipe material. Aggregates that do heat treatment, not so much cut off the material, how many evaporate it and give a very good, smooth, even cut.
Guillotine tools divide the tubular element by means of high pressure, concentrated on the sharp tip of the leading cutting piece. Grinding units, rather, grind off a layer of the processed material, in parallel aligning and polishing the dissection site.
Classic models use a knife-type cutting element and simply cut off a part of the desired size from the main workpiece.
Which tool is best to use depends on the type of pipe material used to install a particular communication system.
The most efficient pipe cutting machines
Fast and accurate cutting of pipes made of highly combustible materials is best done by flameless cutting machines. They easily and clearly process all types of polymers, including those that melt at a temperature of 180-200 ° C.
The classic roller models, both mechanical and electric, are perfect for dissecting durable but ductile copper. The same type of tool cuts pipes from more expensive materials (brass, bronze, etc.)
Gas cutting machines cut steel pipes. This type of treatment is not suitable for cast iron, since in the area of contact of the cutting element with the pipe body a strong overheating is formed. This adversely affects the basic properties of the metal and creates obstacles to even, accurate and high-quality trimming.
For cutting pipe products from multicomponent materials, various versions of the manual guillotine are ideal. They do not damage the thin reinforcing layer of aluminum and do not crush the ductile polymer base.
Ceramic or concrete pipes are most often cut with an angle grinder. These materials do not react to thermal effects, and mechanical devices of the guillotine type lead to crushing the edge and destroying the integrity of the entire pipe.
In addition to equipment designed exclusively for cutting pipes, other tools are used for the same purpose, for example, a cutting disc machine, a circular saw, a laser punching machine and a band saw machine.However, this is relevant only for one-time work. If cutting pipe material of various shapes, diameters and densities is carried out regularly, it is better to get a special narrow-profile tool.
How to cut a pipe of small diameter
In everyday life, when carrying out various repair and installation work, there is often a need to cut a pipe of small diameter. Pipe cutters of various modifications or cutters help to do this. The first option provides a smooth pruning and serves the owner for a long time. The second one is good at cutting, but it is considered less durable and involves use for several years.
Specificity of cutting pipes of small diameter
For proper trimming, the small-diameter pipe is fixed in the clamp of the pipe cutter and the tool handle is turned clockwise so that the roller element contacts the pipe surface. Then make a second turn and carefully inspect the trail of the cut. If the circle is closed and has no visible irregularities, the work continues.
The handle of the unit is shifted half a turn and tightens the roller to the pipe.Making sure that the sharp cutting parts enter the metal, rotate the tool until it can cope with the task. To make the movement more smooth and smooth, the processing area is oiled. Lubrication seriously reduces the temperature of metal processing and significantly speeds up the process of cutting.
For cutting plastic pipes, it is often not the specialized equipment that is used, but the tools available in the arsenal of each owner, for example, large metal shears. From the profile devices take cutters for the polymer, looks very similar to household scissors.
Reputable manufacturers sell pipe cutters for small-diameter products at a fairly high price, but if you need a tool for regular use, it will pay off and will last reliably for many years. When the plans are some one-time work, the unit can be rented or asked for a while from relatives, friends or acquaintances.
Large diameter pipes: processing features
Regular cutting of pipes of medium and large diameter is almost not in demand in everyday life, but it is very relevant for industrial plants and enterprises. To work here requires reliable and powerful units that can provide high speed material cutting and withstand round-the-clock operating loads.
How to cut a pipe of large diameter
For daily cutting of large volumes of metal pipe material using roller devices. Derzhak, which is part of the design, makes it possible to cut off, being at a short distance from the epicenter of the process.
To obtain a high-quality and even cut, they make progressive movements up and down and stop when the pipe is cut. The work belongs to the category of labor-intensive and requires a large amount of time. The best results tool of this class shows when processing items made of thin metal. With thick-walled products, he copes much worse.
For regular cutting of large-diameter pipes in some enterprises put a hacksaw.It is a cumbersome design, something similar to a vertical milling machine. But instead of a milling cutter, as an active element, a large hacksaw stands.
With this unit, not only pipes are cut, but also other metal parts. The most distinct disadvantage of this option is the sharp edge that remains after clipping. It seriously complicates further work with the cropped fragment.
In everyday life for cutting large diameter pipes often use a grinder or any other abrasive tool of this kind. For processing the pipe is rigidly fixed in the holder, and then cut off the desired part.
So that the cutting is done quickly and the worker was not injured, a protective casing is put on the unit and a special disk is installed that is designed specifically for metal cutting.
To obtain a perfectly smooth edge in the clipping region, gas plasma cutting is used. Particularly well manifested itself semi-automatic mode of processing (fixing pipe parts and activation of cutting).With manual cutting, a number of problems arise, which the operator often cannot solve and the process is significantly delayed.
The most advanced tool for cutting large-sized pipes is called laser equipment. Such plants almost instantly cut through the metal of any thickness and strength and leave the perfect cut without burrs after processing. The CNC system makes it possible through a personal computer to set the machine the necessary program for the implementation of work of any complexity.
However, there is a limit on the dimensions of the processed elements. Installation copes with pipes up to 6,5 meters long and with an external diameter up to 160 mm. In addition, the laser has a high cost and is acquired only by enterprises that are constantly engaged in cutting, and not only tubular products, but also other metal parts.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video description of popular types of pipe cutters for metal-plastic and plastic pipes, comparison of different models:
Video instruction on the use of a pipe cutter. The video shows how to correctly process steel products of medium diameter with a pipe cutter.
After reviewing the types and types of pipe cutting equipment, it will not be difficult to choose the right tool. If there are doubts, the consultants of the building and hardware stores will be happy to help and tell you which device is best to buy.