Energy-saving lamps power comparison table. Features of the device and technical characteristics of energy-saving lamps
Not so long ago, electricity tariffs for the population increased, and the substantially increased amount for its payment made many people think about ways to save money. The share of lighting devices in the overall consumption of electricity is significant, so the first step towards saving should be the replacement of inefficient and outdated incandescent lamps with energy-saving lamps (ECL).
Let us consider the main issues that should be known when replacing “Ilyich bulbs” with energy-saving lamps: characteristics and parameters that should be primarily considered when choosing, and how much money can be saved with their help.
Like other electrical devices, ECL have a number of indicators that you should pay attention to when buying. First of all, these include their operating parameters and technical characteristics.
The main parameters of energy-saving lamps
When choosing and buying, pay attention to the following lamp performance parameters:
1. The size of the lamp. As you know, energy-saving lamps are large in size than incandescent lamps, so before you buy, be sure to check whether they fit inside the lamp (first of all it concerns spherical closed ceiling lamps).
2. Form. ECL come in various forms, the most common are U-shaped in the form of horseshoes and spiral-shaped (understandable by name). As a rule, the form does not affect the characteristics of the work, and the only difference is the price: because of the expensive production technology, the cost of spiral-shaped models is a bit more.
3. Size and type of cap. Like incandescent bulbs, ECL can have a traditional wide E 27 base and a narrow E 14 (the latter is most often found in small lamps). Before buying, inspect the lights to select a lamp with the correct type of base.
4.The color of the emitted light. ECL can emit light of both cold and warm hues. It is better to choose a model whose light will be in harmony with the color palette of the room. In more detail about a choice of a lamp by this criterion we will consider further.
Technical characteristics of energy-saving lamps
Obligatory criterion to which attention should be paid when choosing energy-saving lamps is technical characteristics.
1). One of the main indicators is the power, the value of which determines the amount of electricity consumed by the lamp. The amount of power different ECL can be from 3 to 200 watts, but in everyday life usually use lamps with indicators of 7-120 watts.
In order to determine which lamp is enough power to illuminate a room, it should be noted that ECL, due to more efficient light output, emits 5 times more light than the same power of an incandescent lamp.
That is, for a full replacement of a 100-watt old lamp, you will need a 20-watt ECL. To know this figure for a particular lamp model is simple: the manufacturer always points it out on the package.
2). An equally important characteristic is the service life, which shows how many hours the lamp is designed for. According to this indicator, ECL also leaves Ilyich bulbs far behind.After all, they do not have a thin tungsten filament, the burning of which causes a quick failure of the latter.
In gas-discharge fluorescent lamps, a completely different technology is used: an electric current ionizes the gas with which the lamp is filled, and the ions, in turn, cause the glow of the phosphor located on its walls.
Therefore, even the most affordable energy-saving lamps differ in service life by 8 times superior to that of incandescent lamps, namely, 7-8 thousand hours.
And more expensive products of such world-famous manufacturers like Philips, General Electric or OSRAM can work 15 thousand hours. Since the service life is one of the main technical characteristics of energy-saving lamps, this parameter is necessarily indicated on the package.
3). In addition to the production of visible light, the lamps expend electricity on the invisible to the human eye, and therefore useless, radiation in the ultraviolet and infrared spectral regions.
In this regard, when choosing ECL, the magnitude of the luminous flux - characteristics, which gives an assessment of light according to the degree of its impact on the organs of vision, is of great importance.It shows how much visible light the lamp emits.
The better the products, the higher this figure will be. Luminous flux is measured in lumens (lm), its indicator also necessarily indicate on the packaging of the lamp (Φv).
4). The main indicator of the efficiency of an energy-saving lamp is light output. In the ideal case, which is only theoretically possible, all the electricity that a lighting device consumes is spent on emitting light, the light output of the device in this case would be 683 lm / W (from the physics course, with a maximum spectral light efficiency of monochromatic radiation with a wavelength of 555 nm ).
But in reality, most of the electricity goes to radiation of heat and light in the invisible parts of the spectrum. Light efficiency of incandescent bulbs is only 10-15 lm / W; The indicator of energy-saving lamps is slightly higher, but also far from ideal: 50-80 lm / W.
By the way, the energy efficiency classification system of lighting devices is based on the luminous efficiency. In total there are 7 classes of energy efficiency of lamps, for their designation they use Latin letters from A to G.In this system, incandescent lamps occupy the last places - E and F, and energy-saving lamps lead - A and B.
The magnitude of the light output, in contrast to the previous characteristics, is not indicated on the package, but it can be calculated independently: to do this, it suffices to divide the luminous flux indicator by the lamp power.
4). Color temperature is also an important characteristic, showing the light of which shade, cold or warm, is emitted by a lamp. This value is measured in Kelvin (K). The theoretical ideal black body is taken as zero in the color temperature scale, and its index is -273 degrees Celsius.
The emission of light by ECL is due to the phosphor. Different chemical composition of the phosphor leads to the fact that the lamp emits light in different parts of the visible spectrum. This feature of energy-saving lamps, is their undisputed advantage, it allows you to choose the optimal lighting for any type of room.
The color temperature indicator, as a rule, is also indicated on the product packaging, but how to figure out what its specific meaning means? The color temperature of energy-saving lamps can range from 2500 to 6500 K.There are such categories of them:
- 2700 K - a lamp with such a color temperature emits a warm white color, most of all similar to the light of Ilyich's light bulbs familiar to us. It is best to use such models in residential areas.
- 3300-3500 K - the light emitted by the lamp has a neutral white color. Such models are not widespread.
- 4000-4200 K - the radiation of a lamp with such a color temperature has a cool white shade, it is better to use them in workplaces, offices and public buildings. Choosing lamps of this type, it is better to pay attention to more powerful models, as the cold shade makes their light dim.
- 6000-6500 K - these lamps are called fluorescent, their light is sharp, with a pronounced cold shade. Such lighting creates an additional burden on the organs of vision and the nervous system, and therefore is used mainly to illuminate streets, large production premises, theater scenes, etc.
What to look for when buying energy-saving lamps
Agree that when buying incandescent bulbs, we all pay attention, first of all, to its power, since brightness depends on this indicator.
For ECL, this rule does not work, and when choosing, pay attention to the amount of luminous flux. For example, there are two lamps of different manufacturers, both llamas have the same power, say 10 W each.
The first lamp creates a luminous flux of 600 lm, the second - 900 lm. If you read this article from the very beginning, then from the given numbers you will understand that the second lamp shines brighter than the first one with the same power.
Thus, the power of ECL does not always correspond to its brightness, and in practice it often turns out that the more powerful products of one manufacturer clearly lose in brightness to less powerful competitor lamps.
This is especially clearly seen when comparing new energy-saving lamps, which are distinguished by higher efficiency and excellent light output, with older models. Just by paying attention to the technical characteristics indicated on the package, it is possible to choose an energy-saving lamp with lower power consumption, greater brightness and an acceptable cost.
Saving energy-saving bulbs - reality or myth
We have considered the technical characteristics of energy-saving lamps, now let's talk about saving.Savings when using energy-saving lamps is due to a longer service life and lower power consumption. However, many people are skeptical of such savings, they say, although ECL has a long life, but at the expense of its high cost does not pay off at all. Let's calculate whether to really save money by installing ECL at home. Let's carry out simple arithmetic calculations:
1. Take a Philips extra light energy-saving lamp with a power of 20 W (0.02 kW). The average cost of such a lamp for May 2015 is $ 4, and its service life is 10 thousand hours.
Let's calculate how much electricity such a lamp consumes. So, the lamp life is 10 thousand hours, during this time it consumes: (0.02 × 10,000) = 200 kW / hour of electricity (its tariffs for the population can change, therefore at the moment we can estimate the cost of 1 kW / h in 0.05 $). That is, the bill for consumed electricity and the cost of the lamp will be the following amount: $ 4 + (200 × 0.05 $) = $ 14.
2. We carry out the same calculations for the incandescent lamp.
For example, take a lamp with a power of 100 W, the average service life of 1000 hours. Since the brightness of the incandescent lamp is 5 times less than that of ECL, and the service life is shorter by 10 times, then an equivalent replacement will have to use 10 light bulbs with a power of 0.1 kW (100 W), each of which costs $ 0.2. Their total cost will be: $ 0.2 × 10 = 2 $.
For 10,000 hours the lamp will consume: 0.1 × 10,000 = 1000 kW / h of electricity. The total cost of the consumer will be as follows: $ 2 + (1000 × 0.05 $) = $ 52.
That is, only one energy-saving lamp will help save: 52 - 14 = $ 38.
Calculate yourself how much money you can save by replacing all the old Ilyich bulbs with ECL?
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An incandescent filament lamp is a source of artificial light that results from the strong incandescence of a tungsten filament due to electric current passing through it. It is believed that invented the incandescent lamp, Thomas Edison. The first article about the invention appeared August 21, 1879. It was dedicated to the lamp with a coal thread inside.
Types of incandescent bulbs
Currently in everyday life uses a large number of lamps.
Here are the most popular to use :
- Incandescent lamps. The most common diameter dimensions for caps in these lamps are E5, E10, E12, E14, E17, E26, E27 and E40. The value of the digit corresponds to the diameter value in millimeters. These are popular, inexpensive, common light bulbs in stores. Suitable in many lighting fixtures. Convenient and comfortable to use. This light bulb firmly occupies a high position in sales, but there are drawbacks.They consist in the fact that the service life of light bulbs is rather short, they also have a rather low coefficient of usefulness of the action. Efficiency averages only about 10%.
- Halogen lamps. Their base is slightly different. It represents two contacts, so the types of this type of light bulbs look like this: G4, GU4, GY4 - the distance from the contact to the contact is 4 millimeters. G5 - respectively 5 millimeters. G (together with GU and GX) 5.3 - 5.3 millimeters, G6.35 - 6.35 mm, G9, GU10 - 9 and 10 millimeters, respectively. The advantages of such a bulb are high light output (2 times more than that of a conventional lamp), the service life is also about two to four times longer. Of the benefits worth noting is the price - it is cheap - and the size, the light bulb is small, compact, which allows it to be screwed into spotlights. With a voltage of just 12 V, these lamps are safe when used in rooms with high humidity, for example, in the bathroom. Cons - the lamp only works with a special unit that you need to buy with a lighting device. And also it is impossible to touch such a light bulb, if it touches, even if it has cooled down, it burns out because of fatty traces on the flask from the hands.
- Fluorescent lamps. The most common base - G13 and G24.Sufficiently high light output (4 times higher than the light output of incandescent bulbs). Such bulbs are durable and inexpensive. But the range of drawbacks is very wide: large lamp sizes, possible flickering (creates discomfort for the eyes), are demanding on the network, contain mercury in themselves and can function unstable when cooling to negative air temperature.
- Powersave lamp. Energy-saving bulbs are now in their heyday. They are pretty solid in everyday life. These lamps include the so-called KPL lamps - compact fluorescent lamps and LED - LED lamps. When using such lamps, energy is saved for real (it is consumed about 5 times less, despite the same power with an incandescent lamp). Also, the advantages include low heat transfer and long service life. Minuses are insignificant, but they are, firstly, this is the cost, secondly, the delay in time after switching on. Luminous flux appears later, as it takes time to gain full power.
Each user chooses for himself what kind of light bulb to use, based on convenience, price / quality ratio and room capabilities.
Until the incandescent bulb is finally crowded out, it is worth paying attention to it, because the development of lighting bulbs began with the incandescent bulb.
Incandescent bulbs are of the following types :
- Vacuum (there are absolutely no gases inside the lamp);
- Argon (inside the lamp - argon gas);
- Krypton (krypton lamps inside contain krypton, and the brightness is 10% brighter than argon lamps);
- Xenon lamps (inside - xenon, such lamps are 2 times brighter than argon);
- Halogen (halogen lamps, there are many varieties, they are 2.5-3 times brighter than argon lamps);
- Incandescent lamp that converts the range of infrared radiation into the eye (this is a relatively new type of light bulbs).
Incandescent bulbs represent a whole world with different classifications. Classification can be by power: lamps are made from 15 to 750 watts (the most popular light bulbs in everyday life are usually from 60 to 100 watts, operating from a 220-volt network). Classification by type of base, as already mentioned from E5 to E40. In shape - from candle-shaped to linear, the length of which is up to 500 millimeters. On the scope of the lamps (for lighting, lighting rooms, decorative, etc.).The color of the lamps (there is a huge color set of colors used for lamps).
On average, one incandescent lamp lasts about a thousand hours. This is a fairly short service life, so incandescent bulbs successfully replace other types of bulbs.
However, incandescent lamps should also be aware that they have different markings. Marking is a letter marked on the lamp, indicating the design and power with voltage.
- B - a spiral filament in the lamp;
- B - vacuum;
- G - in the lamp is a mixture of argon and nitrogen gases in the ratio of 36 to 14 percent, respectively;
- D - decorative light bulb;
- BC is a lamp with two spirals - biped, filled with krypton and nitrogen in the ratio of 36 to 14%;
- MT - frosted bulb in the bulb;
- ML - in the lamp flask milky;
- C - the shape of the bulb resembles a candle;
- W - bulb in the form of a ball.
All these marks are applied for convenience in future use. In addition, all these varieties of lamps can operate in a variety of temperatures, depending on the material. This is from - 100 to 200 o C. Some lamps operate at temperatures up to 300 o C.
Analyzing the technical characteristics of incandescent lamps, it is impossible not to mention the power. Llama power is measured in watts, power is the amount of light that is emitted by the lamp in all directions. Luminous flux is measured in lumens (Lm). The range of models from 15 to 500 watts. Usually, home appliances use lamps up to 100 watts, while the maximum in the house is used lamps up to 150 watts.
Household lamps may have a different base :
- The pin.
Lamps used in everyday life can be divided into several types, taking into account their structure and application: lamps with a transparent bulb, which provides full transmission of light; opaque lamps whose flow is reduced by 3%; opal lamps that reduce the luminous flux by 20%.
Luminous flux of an incandescent lamp 60 watt
Luminous flux is a measure of the amount of light emitted by a lamp. Manufacturers of electrical products on packages indicate all the information, there are even pictures that help to better understand the characteristics of a particular brand of light bulb.
So, for example, if you take the power of the lamps and their luminous flux and bring it all into an ordered list, you get the following :
- 5 W lamp - the flow is 20 Lm;
- 15 W - the flow is already 120 Lm;
- 25 W - flow about 220 Lm;
- 40 W - flow 415 Lm;
- 60 W - flow exceeds 710 Lm;
- 100 W - luminous flux 1380 Lm;
- 150 W - the stream will be over 2160 Lm.
If you compare the performance with a fluorescent lamp, the latter at 18-20 watts has a luminous flux of about 900 lm, and 25-30 watts - about 1,200 lm, which is approximately equal to or slightly weaker than incandescent lamps of 100 watts. It is precisely because of these characteristics, because of the low efficiency and short life of the incandescent lamp, that they are less and less in demand, giving way to a more perfect product.
Incandescent lamp specifications
Varieties of lamps amaze the imagination, however, when incandescent lamps are screwed in, many people know only its power, not imagining what other characteristics exist in incandescent lamps, and there are quite a lot of them.
Here are just the main ones :
- Service life is about a thousand hours;
- Heat release during combustion is quite high;
- Resistance to voltage drops - low resistance;
- Sensitivity to constant frequent inclusions - sensitivity is present;
- Ambient temperature - from - 60 to + 100 o C;
- The average cost is low;
- Color rendering index - 100;
- Average weight - 15 grams;
Based on these characteristics, each of us makes our choice.
Incandescent lamp device
Of course, in the devices of each lamp there are nuances, but in general, their structure is structured in the same way and the design of all lamps is similar.
- The cavity of the flask;
- Flask itself;
- Holder for the filament;
- Current input;
- Filament (tungsten filament);
- Current input;
- Contact cap;
- Insulator base.
The light emitted by the incandescent lamp, by its characteristics similar to natural light, therefore, does not cause discomfort in humans when used. Inside the lamp itself is inert gas, argon, nitrogen or krypton.
Typical types of incandescent bulbs (video)
Today, no home can do without light bulbs. Lighting is a vital prerequisite for an apartment to be cozy and comfortable, and since lighting takes up such an important milestone, you need to know about light bulbs as much as possible.
The use of incandescent bulbs has long been irrelevant. A new invention has come to replace them, which has become very popular even in spite of the higher cost. These lamps are called energy-saving or simply “housekeeper”.
The main feature of such elements is low consumption of electrical energy. This property led to their popularization in all countries of the world. In some states with the advent of "housekeepers" bans on the use of incandescent bulbs were introduced.
But if the design of a conventional light bulb is simple and straightforward, then energy-saving bulbs are a mystery to many. This article will help you to find out whether energy saving elements are really so useful and economical.
When energy-saving lamps appeared, they were more often exploited in office spaces. Over time, they began to actively fill the markets and electrical goods stores. This led to the fact that the cost of the "housekeeper" decreased and their availability increased for all categories of the population.
Energy saving lamps are a great way to save electricity, which rises in price every year.
Having experienced energy-saving light bulbs in action, people are convinced of their effectiveness and try to switch only to this kind of lighting.
Mostly such lamps are used in residential premises. Less commonly used in cellars, hallways and corridors, as well as to illuminate the territory of a private house in the dark.
The use of such lamps in the housing and utilities sector is widespread. On the stairwells, where ordinary lamps often burn out, the housekeeper is very convenient to use. The term of operation allows to use them a long time. Even if there is a defect in the device and the lamp will blow before the specified time, then it can always be replaced under warranty. Every year more and more residential sectors are switching to energy-saving types of lighting.
How to choose
Manufacturers produce "housekeepers" with different parameters and product quality.
When choosing an energy-saving lamp, pay attention to its size, otherwise it will not fit in a chandelier or lamp.
First, we select the optimal form:
The lighting and operating modes of all types of lamps are almost the same, the differences are only in the form of their manufacture and cost.Spiral is more expensive because of the complexity of the design.
"Housekeepers" vary in power consumption of electricity.The power range ranges from 3 to 120 watts. It is worth paying attention to this, because the brightness of its luminescence depends on the power. If it is necessary to light a large room, then lamps of high power are used.
Bulbs with different diameters of caps are produced, which have different uses. Some are for wall lamps only, others for ceiling chandeliers and spotlights.
Quality directly depends on the manufacturer. It is not recommended to purchase Chinese lamps at low cost.
Energy saving lamps, different in shape and color
Lifetime also plays an important role in the selection.If the warranty on the lamp is 1 year, the housekeeper has low quality indicators. Normal manufacturers give a guarantee for their products up to three years.
Heading to the electrical appliance store for an energy-saving lamp, it is important to remember the following:
- The form;
- Type of base;
- Life time;
- Color transfer;
- Firm manufacturer.
What are the advantages of "housekeeper"? These include the following important indicators:
- High properties of light return. "Housekeepers" can emit luminous flux many times larger than conventional lamps. Profitability also consists that the maximum electricity consumption turns into a light stream.
- Long service life. Medium-quality light bulbs can burn continuously for up to 15,000 hours.
- A variety of color streams. In incandescent bulbs the ability to control the color of the glow is missing. "Housekeepers" are three types of glow: warm, cold and daytime.
- Minor heat emission. This property suggests that the energy consumed goes to the formation of luminous flux. The weak heating of the device allows it to be used in floor lamps made of fabrics and plastics. Conventional light bulbs cause the fabric to heat up and may cause a fire.
- Soft and uniform distribution of light rays. Light propagates around the room with the same glow.
- Low power consumption with high lighting. Savings can be up to 75% compared to standard incandescent bulbs.
"Housekeepers" save the funds of users
Along with such quality indicators, energy-saving lamps have their drawbacks. They are as follows:
- Long time of occurrence of maximum luminous flux when the lamp is turned on. This time ranges from 3 seconds and sometimes to 2 minutes.Especially this phenomenon is often noticed when the "housekeeper" is operated in a cold room.
- Energy-saving lamps emit ultraviolet rays that are harmful to people suffering from skin diseases. The operation of a light source for such people is not allowed at a distance closer than 30 cm. The higher the lamp power, the more ultraviolet they emit.
- Sensitivity to voltage drops. If the mains voltage of 220 V is reduced by 10%, they are able to turn off independently. Do not turn on at reduced voltage of 195 V. Do not use lamps in luminaires with dimmers.
- Low frost resistance. The inclusion and operation of energy-saving lamps in the cold at minus temperatures (-15 and below) is impossible.
- The content of the structure of harmful substances: mercury and phosphorus. These substances are not dangerous during a luminescence, but pose a threat if the lamp breaks. After unsuitability require special disposal.
- Periodic flicker. This is not a normal phenomenon and indicates a possible failure in the near future.
- High price. To transfer the whole house to this type of lighting will require considerable financial costs.
Mercury vapor hazard
Mercury is a chemical reagent that is one of the most dangerous to humans. Virtually all energy-saving lamps are in the design, or rather, inside a glass bulb, mercury vapor. Their content is 3-5 mg that is a lethal dose for humans. During operation of the lamp, this mercury is absolutely harmless, it does not stand out from it and does not affect the human body in any way.
If the lamp breaks, the danger of poisoning a person with mercury vapor increases.
If the energy-saving lamp has broken, then you should immediately ventilate the room and dispose of it.
The measures taken in time will not entail any dangerous consequences. Dispose of properly. After all, the industry produces millions of energy-saving lamps per day, and there are very few reception points. In this regard, people throw out lamps together with household waste, which is unacceptable and causes enormous damage to the environment!
If in the village there is no possibility to hand over energy-saving light bulbs to a recycling company, then it is better to choose not containing hazardous substances.
A few words about the manufacturers
Since the advent of energy-saving lamps, the number of manufacturers of this light source is growing every day.The most demanded (by price indicators) are products manufactured in the PRC. The cost of quality elements is much higher than Chinese, but the long service life and high technical parameters pay for the costs.
Among the most popular and high-quality manufacturers are the following:
These brands have really excellent technical indicators. Manufacturers give a guarantee on their products up to 3 years. Bases of production are in Germany, Italy and other countries.
Firms producing energy-saving lamps of average quality:
Manufacturers of economy class products (quality level - satisfactory):
Manufacturers of high-quality energy-saving lamps do not use liquid mercury in the manufacture of flasks, but a special kind of amalgam alloy. In this alloy, mercury is in a bound state. This allows her, when breaking the flask, not to dissolve in the air, but remain in a bound state.
Main technical parameters
Energy-saving lamps consist of a cap, bulb and starter. Lamp bulbs are filled with mercury vapor or inert argon gas. The white matter on the glass of the flask is a phosphor. It is also used in fluorescent types of lamps.
The principle of operation of such lamps is based on the supply of high voltage in a flask with pairs. The voltage is increased by means of an installed starter inside the plastic shell of the lamp.
High voltage causes the continuous movement of electrons. These electrons collide with mercury atoms and contribute to the appearance of ultraviolet light inside the bulb.Ultraviolet passes through the phosphor and causes a glow which is perceived by human vision.
Energy Saving Light Device
The principle of formation of visible light in energy-saving light bulbs
The main technical parameters of "housekeepers" include:
- Colorful temperature;
- light output;
- types of socles.
This is an important indicator when choosing an energy saving lamp to illuminate a room."Housekeepers", with the consumption of low power, are able to emit a luminous flux 80% higher than that of incandescent lamps. Incandescent bulbs, which consumes 75 watts of power, can be replaced with energy-efficient, with a power of 15 watts.
Below is a table of the ratio of the power of incandescent lamps and "housekeepers" with the number of lumens that they produce.Comparison of lamp power with the luminous flux emitted by them Power "housekeeper", W Incandescent lamp power, W Luminous flux, Lm
The table shows how you can save on electricity, if you use energy-saving elements.
As mentioned aboveenergy-saving lamps can produce three different types of luminescence, depending on the radiation temperature:
- Warm radiation has a luminescence temperature of 2700 degrees Kelvin. Warm light is suitable for rooms where there is no need for eyestrain. Best for bedroom and kitchen.
- Daylight - 4200K. It will be a great solution for lighting children's rooms and living rooms. This glow is more close to natural light.
- Cold - 6400 degrees Kelvin. For office premises where long-lasting eyestrain is required, lamps with cold light emission are suitable.
Visualization of the characteristics of "color temperature"
Comparison of brightness and color of the luminous flux emitted by lamps of different types
If the eyes get tired of the light that emits the device. This is evidence that the color temperature of the lamp for this room was incorrectly chosen.
Luminous efficiency is the ability to propagate luminous flux, measured in lumens Lm, and is directly dependent on the power of the lamp. The more powerful the energy-saving lamp, the faster and more intensively the electrons move inside the bulb, interacting with the atoms. The table characterizing the amount of luminous flux from the power is presented above.
PracticallyAll packs indicate the power and luminous flux of the lamp which it radiates.
Types of socles
In order to avoid the need to replace the cartridges of many lamps and chandeliers,"Housekeepers" are made with types of standard E27 base. The number 27 indicates the diameter of the base in mm.
There is also a small base, labeled as E14,designed for small lampholders or floor lamps.
Manufacturers have not forgotten about searchlight cartridges, in which it is necessary to screw in lamps with E40 base.
Energy-saving lamps have characterized themselves on the positive side and have become very popular. Along with negative properties, they still have more positive ones.
After the first month of operation, the savings in electricity consumption will be noticeable. It remains only to synchronize the utilization of energy-saving lamps with production, and the savings in family finances will be guaranteed.
Video about the device energy-saving light bulbs
To finally dispel doubts about this type of elements, see the detailed video. It describes in detail and shows the principle of operation, as well as the "opening" of light sources and their detailed analysis.
It is safe to say that the operation of high-quality energy-saving lamps does not cause any harm to human health or the environment, especially if the disposal was properly carried out.
It is known that the purchase of energy-saving lamps (ECL) over time will pay off with interest.But, in order to make this purchase for the replacement of a conventional light bulb, you need to know the main characteristics and parameters of energy-saving electric lighting devices.
First of all, users, buying a lighting device, are interested in how bright it will be, if there is enough light power for comfortable reading or performing precise work.
Manufacturers of ECL indicate the luminous flux F in lumens, but this parameter does not say anything to the ordinary man in the street, especially since the explanation of this light value requires an understanding of the intensity of light, calculated in candela, and stereometry knowledge regarding the solid angle, called steradian.
Therefore, on the package with energy-saving lamps also indicate a comparison of the glow of this lamp, equivalent to the luminosity of an ordinary light bulb of a certain power. For example, it can be clearly shown on the packaging that when using a 25-watt CFL lamp, the lighting will be the same as when an incandescent lamp consumes 100 watts.
Thus, you can immediately see the savings, and it is clear what the luminous flux from this electric lighting device will be.
And yet, despite the difficulty of understanding, manufacturers of ECL in large letters indicate the luminous flux in lumens, and not without purpose. The fact is that there is such a term - light output, which is characterized by the ratio of the radiated light flux of a light source to the power consumed by it.
In incandescent light output is very low, from 5 lm / W in conventional light bulbs, up to 35 lm / W in special high-temperature projection lamps. In compact fluorescent lamps, this indicator is from 45 to 100 lm / W (preferably several times).
In LED lamps, this parameter is even higher - up to 200 lm / W. Sometimes the coefficient of light output is indicated by the manufacturer on the packaging, denoted by the Greek letter ή.
Understanding the principle of calculating the light output will allow you to independently determine the effectiveness of any lamp compared to other samples, for this you need to divide the luminous flux of a light source by its power:
where ϕ is the luminous flux in lumens, P is the power in watts, and compare with the similar ratio of lamps from other manufacturers.
The number of lumens is also indicated for other types of lamps - halogen, xenon, mercury, sodium, etc.
Power, voltage, frequency
ECL power means the consumption of electrical energy, similar to the indicated value in watts on the bulb of an ordinary light bulb.
Since the choice of an energy-saving lamp is made on the basis of its luminosity, similar to that which was sufficient to illuminate a certain room using an outdated incandescent bulb, the power value of an energy-saving lamp is used only to calculate the expected energy savings.
It is inexpedient to choose ECL by power, since different companies can have different luminaries in terms of light output. The supply voltage and frequency offered by ECL stores are usually standard, 220-240V, 50 Hz, but when buying an imported product anywhere on the market, it is worth paying attention to this parameter - in some countries the supply voltage and frequency are different.
Table of technical characteristics of different types of lamps
Energy efficiency class
An international characteristic denoting the efficiency of energy use to perform useful work by the device.
In relation to electric lighting devices, this parameter is calculated based on the light output,which directly depends on the watts consumed energy.
This characteristic has a letter gradation, from A to G (English alphabet). A - high class, high efficiency (CFL, LED lamps), G - the lowest (incandescent lamps).
As technology improves, there are already classes A +, A ++, which denote an even better energy efficiency. This parameter helps the consumer at a glance to assess the economy of the purchased product, without going into the details of the technical characteristics. Energy efficiency class must necessarily be indicated on the packaging and in the passport ECL.
Energy efficiency table
This term means whatever the spectrum of the glow of an absolutely black body heated to a given temperature. Leading vital analogies, we can remember how red hot metal glows, or even more heated filament.
With respect to fluorescent and LED lamps, the principle of light emission is different, but its spectral temperature is also denoted in degrees Kelvin (K). Electric lighting devices, including energy-saving, produced with the following range of color temperatures: 2700 - 6500 K.
Luminaires with a temperature closer to the lower limit of the range have a yellowish, warm shade, typical of ordinary light bulbs, familiar to the eyes. For this reason, ECL with this parameter is most popular in everyday life, although the efficiency of such lamps is somewhat lower.
Cool white color emit light sources with a temperature in the middle of the scale, are used more to illuminate non-residential premises and streets. ECL with a temperature of 6000 K and above have a bluish tint, have a strong photochemical and photoelectric effect, therefore they are used by photographers, videographers, scene illuminators; this spectrum also contributes to photosynthesis in plants.
In the same room you need to use lamps with the same color temperature.
What is the color with a different light intensity
Color rendering index
This characteristic indicates the natural color perception of artificially illuminated colored surfaces. For example, if a white sheet of paper is illuminated in green, the sheet will appear green.
And with such lighting in no way can you determine the true color of the paper. If you print something in green letters on this sheet, then in this light they will become invisible.
how does the complexion change with different luminous intensity of energy-saving lamps
In everyday life, such phenomena do not occur, because the Sun and ordinary household lights emit light throughout the visible spectrum, from red to violet. But in radiation, the intensity of the glow in different spectra is different, so the illuminated objects will have different shades in daylight and artificial light. The color rendering index is designated CRI (color rendering index) or Ra, the higher it is, the more artificial light is similar to daylight.
In practice, the greater the CRI, the less the color distortion of the illuminated surfaces. The index scale ranges from Ra = 0 (monochromatic, monochromatic light sources) to Ra = 100 (sunlight).
In fluorescent lamps, this parameter depends on the number of components in the phosphor. The five-component KLL Ra> 90. For LED lamps 60
Sometimes the color rendering index and color temperature are combined in one three-digit code. The first digit multiplied by 10 means Ra, and a two-digit number multiplied by 100 means temperature.
color change table at different light intensity
The performance characteristics of energy-saving lamps
- lamp base.The usual cartridge is marked with E 27. There is also a reduced E 14, an increased E 40. ECL with other types of socles in everyday life are rarely used;
- Overall dimensions of the lamp. The CFL has larger dimensions than ordinary lamps, because of which they may not fit into the ceiling chandelier. Also for these fluorescent lamps, the tube diameter is indicated, and the bending method is spiral-shaped, U-like, pear-shaped;
- The service life of an electric lighting device at a stable voltage, is indicated in hours;
- The number of inclusions that will withstand electric;
- The possibility of dimming (changing the brightness of the glow)
- The mercury content of a fluorescent lamp is indicated in milligrams. In this regard, a special method is prescribed for the disposal of CFLs containing mercury;
- The range of ambient temperatures, as well as the surface temperature of the working lamp, climatic design according to GOST.
table of different sizes of caps
Despite, or rather even due to the abundance of various models of energy-saving lamps on the shelves of our stores, many have not fully understood the parameters of such CFLs. Previously, with incandescent bulbs, it was much simpler and clearer. There is a lamp power and that says it all.Now, brightness, color, temperature, and some other parameters have been added to this. How to determine all this when buying energy-saving lamps? Now we will clarify the situation.
Conventional compact fluorescent lamps are designed for standard cartridge type E14, E27, E40. CLLs come in different capacities. Approximately up to 100W for chambered E27 and up to 200W for E40. The chromaticity of energy-saving lamps is usually within 2700-4700-6400K.
Any energy-saving lamp, characterized by a number of parameters, such as:
- color - shows the temperature of the glow;
- power - how much electric energy is consumed when using this lamp;
- luminous flux - the level of illumination provided by the lamp;
- base - indicates which cartridge lamp twists.
Household energy-saving lamps have three main color options:
2700K - warm - color of a luminescence of a yellowish shade;
4200K - cold - the color of the glow of a bluish tint;
6400K - day - color of a luminescence white.
Approximate ratio of power and luminous flux in energy-saving lamps:
11 W - 600 lm;
20 watts - 1100 lm;
23 Tues - 1260 lm;
25 Tues - 1370 lm;
26 W - 1400 lm.
Energy-saving lamps are labeled so that you can immediately determine their basic parameters.According to the old designation, the first digit indicates the light color:
- warm white
31 = 3000 K
41 = 2700 K
32 = 3000 K
- neutral white
21 = 4000 K
22 = 4000 K
- white daylight
860 = 6000 K
950 = 5000 K
965 = 6500 K
According to the new designation, the last two digits are the first two digits of the color temperature, and the first digit is the color rendition coefficient:
- warm white
827 = 2700 K
830 = 3000 K
930 = 3000 K
- neutral white
840 = 4000 K
940 = 4000 K
- white daylight
860 = 6000 K
950 = 5000 K
965 = 6500 K
Domestic marking of fluorescent lamps contains a letter - a parameter indicator:
L - luminescent;
B - white chromaticity;
TB - warm white;
D - daytime color;
C - with improved color rendition;
E - with improved environmental friendliness;
And the figure that denotes the rated power in watts. The most frequent values are 6, 8, 13, 18, 20, 30, 36, 40, 65, 80. For example, the LBC 20-D lamp is decoded as follows: fluorescent white daytime color, power 20-watt.
Nevertheless, even despite the prohibition of the sale of 100-watt lamps in many regions since 2011, people are stocking up with the usual and cheaper incandescent bulbs. For the time being, shops are allowed to sell off goods, but there will be no new deliveries. So a sharp transition of the population to energy-saving lamps should not be expected.Conscious citizens are still stretched out on stovatkakh, because high prices and, most importantly, poor quality of lighting are scaring off new consumers. Many people after comparing the colors of energy-saving and conventional lamps still prefer the old.