Do you need vaccinations?
It would seem that for a strange question in the 21st century,when the fashion for a healthy lifestyle entered. However strange as it may seem, there are still many people who are against vaccination. They not only refuse vaccinations themselves, but also do not allow doctors to vaccinate their children. In this article we will try to find out what leads these people and answer the question, after all, whether vaccinations are needed or they can not be done.
What is a vaccine?
To begin, perhaps, it is necessary with a short excursion intohistory. The emergence of the term vaccine and full-scale study of the mechanism of vaccination occurred in the XVII century, thanks to the works of the French microbiologist and chemist Louis Pasteur. He created his theory about the causative agents of infectious diseases and on its basis began to develop vaccines to prevent infectious diseases. He managed to create a vaccine against anthrax and a vaccination against rabies, laying the foundations of the theory of artificial immunity.
Vaccine is a drug created on the basis ofmicroorganisms-pathogens of infection or special molecules-antigens, whose action is directed to the formation of immunity to a certain infectious disease.
Types of vaccines
At the moment there are more than a hundred different inoculations against infectious diseases. They are divided into the following groups:
- Live, weakened vaccines are drugs,which contain microorganisms that are initially inadequate or unable to cause the disease. However, if they get into a living organism, they provoke an immune reaction to this infectious disease in the future. Such vaccines are used to prevent measles, rubella, mumps, chicken pox, mumps and flu.
- Killed, inactive vaccines are drugs,which contain microorganisms that cause infectious diseases, previously, before the introduction into the human body, devoid of activity by chemical or thermal means. They are not as effective as live vaccines, and they instill immunity to infectious disease only for a short period of time, but they are safer, as inactivating microorganisms are not guaranteed to lead to the development of the disease, in contrast to the weakened ones. Such vaccinations are made for the prevention of poliomyelitis and hepatitis A.
- Anatoxins. Some bacterial diseases develop in the body not from getting any specific bacteria, but because of the toxins that these bacteria produce. For their prevention, the organism is not found in the bacteria themselves, but in inactivated toxins produced by these microorganisms, or in toxins. These vaccinations serve to prevent the development of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis.
- Conjugated and subunit vaccines. Subunit vaccines contain only fragments of microorganisms causing an infectious disease. Conjugated vaccines are made on the basis of two or more different components. Both of them provoke the formation of an immunological reaction in the body. This group includes vaccines against human papillomavirus, hemophilic infection, acellular pertussis vaccine and influenza vaccine.
Ministry of Health of Russia carefullyIt ensures that all citizens of our country are subject to routine vaccination. There is a special vaccination calendar, which fixes the procedure for vaccination for all groups of citizens. So, vaccinations against tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, poliomyelitis are mandatory. Some vaccinations need only be done once, while others need to be done on a regular basis. For example, vaccination with the drug ADS-M against diphtheria and tetanus is done not only for children, but for adults, every 10 years.
To date, the Russian Federation has approved a list of diseases for which vaccinations are made without fail:
- whooping cough;
- Hepatitis B;
Unjustified risk or persistent protection?
Some believe that vaccines can reducehuman immunity. However, such accusations are not scientifically grounded. We are daily exposed to the threat of getting an infectious disease, when we communicate with other people or just go out into the street. If you can not afford yourself or your child to live permanently under a glass dome in an atmosphere of complete sterility, then this threat can not be avoided. Of course, it is better to expose your body to a small test by weakened molecules of the pathogen of infection, under the strict control of doctors, than to suddenly discover the severe form of this disease.
Another common fear is connected with riskto catch the disease from which the vaccine is intended. As we saw from the vaccine classification described above, only one type of vaccine (live vaccine) is theoretically capable of causing the disease. However, if you follow all the recommendations prescribed for this type of procedure and use only the tested vaccines under the supervision of a doctor, then these vaccines will not harm either. On the contrary, you will strengthen the body's immunity and can not be afraid of infection. A vivid example of the benefits of vaccination are people who, in the autumn and winter, get a flu shot, thereby protecting themselves from the threat of being infected during the epidemic.
It will also be helpful for you to read articles on What is a vaccine and whether to get a flu shot.