DIY vertical wind turbine: how to build a wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation
The wind has incredible energy capabilities. The non-use of its powerful potential must be boldly recognized as unreasonable waste. But you can easily build a vertical wind turbine with your own hands and get virtually free energy to meet domestic needs. It's quite real, do you agree?
The article submitted by us will help to understand in detail a rather complex technical issue. Systematic, accessible information is presented in the smallest detail that covers the principle of operation of popular systems that convert the energy of air masses into electricity. Without a doubt, you will be carried away by the idea of creating a windmill, with the specificity of the assembly of which we invite you to become familiar.
The author of the article with extremely high accuracy describes the types of vertical wind turbines, affected their differences, advantages with disadvantages.The textual part of the material is perfectly supplemented with photos and video instructions.
The advantages and principle of operation of wind turbines
A modern vertical generator capable of transforming wind gusts into an energy resource has a whole range of interesting advantages. To work correctly, it does not need additional devices that determine the direction of the wind.
The device of vertical type functions at low height. For its maintenance, no need for various devices to ensure the safe conduct of high-altitude repair and maintenance work.
The minimum of moving parts makes wind turbine more reliable and operationally stable. The optimum profile of the blades and the original shape of the rotor provide the unit with a high level of efficiency regardless of the direction in which the wind blows at any given moment.
The generator works absolutely silently, does not interfere with the owners and neighbors, does not create harmful emissions into the atmosphere and reliably serves for many years, carefully supplying energy to residential premises.
The vertical wind-type generator operates on the principle of magnetic levitation. In the process of turbine rotation, pulsed and lifting forces, as well as the force of actual braking, are formed. The first two make the blades spin. This action activates the rotor and it creates a magnetic field that generates electricity.
The device functions completely independently and does not require the intervention of the owners in the process.
Classification of vertical generators
There is some structural difference between vertical scoop devices. It does not make the units better or worse, but simply allows you to choose the most convenient option for performing specific tasks in a particular area.
# 1: Orthogonal system features
The structurally orthogonal wind generator consists of a solid axis of vertical rotation and several parallel blades remote from the center base for a certain distance.
The device does not need additional guiding mechanisms and works normally, regardless of the direction of the wind. The vertical main shaft makes it possible to locate drive equipment at ground level, which greatly simplifies operation, repair and maintenance.
The disadvantages of orthogonal devices are too massive blade system and low efficiency compared to the efficiency of horizontal-axis modules.
# 2: Daria's rotor generators
A wind generator equipped with a Darier rotor has a vertical axis of rotation and 2-3 flat-blade vanes without a characteristic aerodynamic profile fixed at the base and at the top of the axis of rotation. The unit in its work does not focus on the force or direction of the wind, has a high rotational speed and allows the location of the drive devices on the ground, which facilitates and accelerates the process of scheduled maintenance and possible repair.
The supporting and rotating units of the device with Darier’s rotor are vulnerable to increased dynamic loads, and the effectiveness of the blade system is in many respects inferior to axial horizontal installations.
# 3: Savonius rotor units
Vertical wind turbine with Savonius rotor has a semi-cylindrical vane system and from similarThe installations are characterized by high starting torque and the ability to work effectively in low-speed winds.
In the reproach of the vertical complex with the Savonius rotor, increased material consumption and lower efficiency are put in comparison with wind generators of horizontal-axis type. That is why the release of high-power equipment of this class is considered not appropriate.
# 4: Windmill with multi-blade rotor and guide
This type of device is an improved version of the classic orthogonal wind generator. The rotor complex here consists of blades arranged in two rows. The outer blade layer remains static and works as a guide. It captures wind flow, captures it, compresses it and in this way significantly increases the actual wind speed.
The internal row of blades is a movable structure, on which at a certain angle the air flow from the first rotor installation falls.
Experts call this type of device the most effective in its class and emphasize that the specific design allows it to work even at the lowest possible wind speeds.
# 5: Characteristics of instruments with a helicoid rotor
Helicoid wind turbine or Gorlov generator is another modification of the traditional orthogonal rotor system. The blades of the model are twisted in an arc. This design feature makes it possible to quickly catch the air flow and rotate smoothly without jerking. This principle of operation significantly reduces the dynamic load on the base and moving parts, thereby increasing their service life.
Twisted rotor blades for a helicoid windmill make for a very progressive, but complex technology. Because of this, the units have a rather high cost and are not widely popular with private consumers.
# 6: Characteristics of vertical axial rotors
The main difference between the vertical-axial generator is the vertically located blades, which resemble an aviation wing in profile, whose axis is clearly parallel to the vertical shaft. The design is somewhat reminiscent of the rotor Daria, but in a production environment is produced much faster and easier.
Wind turbines with a rotor of a vertical-axial type are distinguished by reliability and durability, they easily withstand considerable operational loads and do not cost too much money. These qualities make them relevant for use not only in industrial but also for domestic purposes.
Handwritten manufacturing windmill
To create a wind generator with a vertical axis of rotation in the home with your own hands is not too difficult. It is enough to purchase the required component parts, assemble them in the correct order and install the module in the chosen place. As soon as there is a minimal breeze, the product will work and begin to give the owners the necessary energy.
Step 1: Procurement of Components and Materials
For the manufacture of wind vertical generator do-it-yourself need components such as:
- rotor - the movable part of the unit:
- blades - parts that catch wind flow;
- axial mast - for mounting the rotor and blades (can be in the form of a long pole, pyramid or tripod);
- stator - designed to accommodate the coil with a solid copper wire;
- accumulator - capacious capacity for accumulating the obtained resource;
- inverter - a device for converting direct current into alternating current;
- the controller is a device that decelerates the generator at the time when the unit develops the actual power exceeding the basic parameters.
For the manufacture of blades suitable lightweight high-quality plastic sheet with a good indicator of elasticity.Other types of materials are too susceptible to various damages and deformations and simply cannot cope with such a high dynamic load.
Small blades can be made of medium density PVC, and for large, wide parts, you need the most durable material that can withstand strong wind blowing at a speed of 15 m / s and above for a long time.
Step 2: Preliminary preparation of elements
To create the blades of a vertical wind generator, 4 identical parts are cut out of a high-strength PVC pipe. Two semicircular fragments are cut out of tin and fastened on each side of the pipe. The radius of rotation of the blade parts in this case will be 690 mm, and the height of each blade will be about 700 mm.
For the assembly of the rotor system take neodymium magnets (6 pieces), ferrite disks with a diameter of 230 mm (2 pieces) and glue.On the first disk magnets are placed, alternating in polarity and observing between them an angle of 60 degrees with a diameter of 165 mm. In the same way they make a second disk, and then pour the magnets with glue.
For the stator, 9 coils are prepared and 60 turns of copper wire with a diameter of 1 mm are wound on each of them. The following spike occurs in this order:
- start 1 coil with end 4;
- start 4 with the end of 7 coil.
The second phase is collected on the same principle, but begin to work with 2 coils, and the third - with 3 coils. A special shape is made from a sheet of plywood, the bottom is lined with a fiberglass cut and the phases welded from the coils are placed on top. Fill the construction with glue and leave it for 1-2 days so that all the details grab and take the right places. Then proceed to the connection of individual parts into a single working system.
Step 3: Assemble all parts of the generator
To connect all the elements of the generator in the upper rotor make 4 holes for the studs. On the bracket magnets put up the bottom rotor. Next place the stator, having previously made holes in it for attachment to the bracket. The studs are pressed against the aluminum plate and then covered with a second rotor, placing its magnets down.
Studs with a wrench alternately rotate, so that the upper rotor is lowered to the bottom evenly and without jerks. When he takes his place, the studs unscrew and remove the aluminum plates. In the end, the whole structure is fixed with nuts and tightened them clearly, but not too hard, so as not to disrupt the thread.
Step 4: Final hardware installation
For the mast, they take a solid metal pipe 4-5 meters long and fasten a generator already assembled with their own hands to it. Then, a frame with plastic blades is attached to the generator and a mast structure is installed on a previously prepared site with a three-point reinforced foundation. Additionally, the position of the system is fixed with a stretch.
The electrical network to the wind turbine is connected in a certain sequence.The controller takes the resource from the generator and converts the alternating current into direct current, which is necessary to charge the battery. The battery accumulates the energy released, and the inverter converts the direct current into alternating current, which feeds the bulk of household appliances and home servicing systems.
Choosing a place for a wind generator
The right choice of place to install a wind generator is a very important and crucial stage. It is best to place the device on the open as high as possible and carefully make sure that it does not fall below the level of the adjacent residential and farm buildings. Otherwise, buildings will become an obstacle to air flow and the efficiency of the unit will be significantly reduced.
If the plot goes to a river or a lake, the windmills are placed on the shore where the winds blow most often. Perfectly suited for the location of the generator elevations, located on the territory, or large empty spaces that do not have artificial or natural barriers to air flow.
When residential real estate (house, cottage, apartment, etc.) is located in the city or is located outside the city, but in densely built areas, the wind energy complex is placed on the roof.To accommodate the generator on the roof of an apartment building, they take the written consent of their neighbors and receive official permission from the relevant authorities.
In a private house that has a large personal plot, it is much easier to choose a suitable place. The main thing is to take into account that the design is at a distance of 15-25 meters from the living quarters. Then the sound effects from the rotating blades will not disturb anyone.
Vertical instrument maintenance
In order for the vertical wind generator to work efficiently, clearly and as efficiently as possible, all moving parts of the structure must be lubricated. This procedure is carried out at least 2 times in the entire calendar year.
In parallel, during maintenance, they tighten up the loose nuts from operation,strengthen the electrical connections, check the mechanical components for the presence of corrosive manifestations, tighten the weakened stretch cables and carefully inspect the blades for rupture or damage.
Painting of parts produced as needed and 1 time per year make a complete survey of the entire structure for troubleshooting. Such care ensures the correct operation of the wind farm and extends its operational period.
Before starting to manufacture a vertical-type wind generator, they study the weather situation in their region and try to determine whether the unit will be able to provide the necessary amount of resource. Experts recommend first to designate parameters such as:
- the average number of windy days per year (when the gust exceeds 3 m / s);
- the amount of electricity consumed per day by the household;
- availability of a suitable place for wind equipment on its own site.
The first indicator is learned from data obtained at the nearest weather station or found on the Internet on the relevant portals. Additionally, they are checked with printed geographical publications and provide a complete picture of the situation with the wind in their region.
Statistics are taken not for one year, but for 15-20 years, only then the average figures will be as correct as possible and will show whether the generator will be able to fully meet the need of home ownership for electricity or its strength will be enough only to supply individual household needs.
If the owner has a large plot of land located on a slope, on the bank of a river or in open space, there will be no problems with the installation.
When the house is located in the depth of the settlement, and the yard is distinguished by compact dimensions and closely adjoins the neighboring buildings, it will not be easy to install a vertical model of a windmill with your own hands. The construction will have to be raised 3-5 meters above the ground and additionally strengthened so that it will not fall on a strong impulse.
It is necessary to take into account all this information at the planning stage so that it becomes clear whether the wind generator can take over full energy supply or its role remains within the auxiliary energy source.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1 will demonstrate how to make a vertical wind-type generator with a Darya rotor system at home. The video clearly presents the features and curious nuances of the assembly process. There is a definition of the maximum power of the manufactured unit:
How a vertical wind generator works and how much energy it generates, video No. 2 will show. It provides a detailed overview of the module and a description of the work on the correct measurement of the actual power and other parameters:
In the video number 3 presents testing self-made wind generator of the vertical type. What is a device made by itself from scrap materials capable of:
Such a modern and practical source of alternative energy, like vertical windmills, is not at all difficult to assemble with your own hands. With proper experience in housekeeping, you can make every detail on your own, and then combine all components into a single, coherent design.
If you do not want to complicate the task, it is quite appropriate to purchase ready-made components at home,without haste and fuss, install a reliable wind turbine capable of ensuring uninterrupted supply of electricity to the dwelling.
When in the forces there is no absolute confidence, it is better to entrust work to professionals. They will do everything very quickly and in full compliance with the basic operational requirements.