Caries in children: causes, types, stages and treatment of caries of primary teeth. Prevention of caries in young children

on 02.03.2017

Caries- The most common disease of the teeth, which is increasingly common in young children. Children's caries develops much faster than an adult. Many parents think that with the loss of milk teeth, the problem will disappear by itself, but not everything is so simple. The caries infectious process “erodes” the upper enamel on the milk tooth, penetrating the root, infecting the surrounding tissues. After an early removal of a temporary tooth, a violation of bite, speech, and the jaw part may develop. Therefore, it is very important to treat caries of milk teeth in the early stages. Let's talk about the problem of caries in childhood.

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Manifestations of dental caries in children: how to recognize the disease in time?

Many parents blithely do not think that their one-year-old or three-year-old toddler may have caries. That is why quite often the first symptoms of the disease are missed. Knowing the disease "in the face", it is possible to recognize the changes in the teeth in time and prevent the disease from progressing.

Initially, in most cases, caries occurs on the front teeth and looks like specks, which can be white, gray-yellow, milky brown or black. The surface of the enamel in the places of the spots is as if depressed. Call such damagecarious grooves.
So, to recognize caries, parents need to know the following main features:

  • Visuals- stains on the surface of the enamel with carious grooves.
  • Pain- discomfort and pain when exposed to irritants or when chewing.
  • Smell from the mouth- in carious cavities accumulates food, which gives in to rotting, emitting an unpleasant smell.

If these symptoms are present in your child, be sure to visit the pediatric dentist and start caries treatment.

What is dangerous tooth decay for children?


According to statistics, caries is detected in 12% of children under a year, and by the age of five, almost 75% of children are diagnosed with caries.

Pathogenic microflora is localized on the surface of temporary teeth, where it is actively developing. This brings discomfort to the baby not only when exposed to stimuli (sour, hot, sweet), but also affects the protective functions of the body. A complication of the neglected degree of caries can be:

  • premature loss of the baby tooth;
  • meningitis;
  • abscess;
  • sepsis;
  • thrombophlebitis.

If you do not treat the disease, it moves to the child’s permanent teeth. With a weak immunity purulent infection gives complications to the throat, nose and ears. In addition, the baby’s gastrointestinal tract suffers, as pathogenic bacteria that cause caries develop from the carious cavities to the stomach. They can cause gastritis and disorder of the digestive system.

Caries worsens the quality of life of the child, because pains when eating hot, sweet, etc., stimulate the restriction of the diet. Also, ugly teeth are often the cause of ridicule of peers, which affects the psyche of the baby.

Causes of caries in children

The teeth and their strength are laid in the womb, and very oftenlimited calcium intake by mombecomes the cause of the development of pathology on the baby's teeth. To save the situation, you must enter into the children's diet:

  • dairy products,
  • fish,
  • other foods rich in calcium.

Also should not be discountedhereditary factor. If a mother or father has such a disease, then in 80% of cases, without proper treatment, caries becomes a lifelong companion of a child. But the reasons for the development of caries are not only internal: an external effect rather increases the risk of caries development.

  • A large amount of sweet.Candies and chocolate are the main friends of caries, because during the fermentation of carbohydrates, which are very much in these products, acids are released that help break down the enamel, giving the bacteria an excellent help for the development of caries. Limit the consumption of sweet food, and if possible, brush or rinse your mouth after each candy.
  • Neglect of oral hygiene.“He does not want, well, and it is not necessary” - this is the wrong policy of parents It is necessary to interest the child in daily oral hygiene. From the age of two, buy your karapuzu baby brush, paste and show how to properly brush your teeth.More information about the hygiene of the teeth of young children can be found in the article “How to properly brush the teeth of a child and when to start to do it? Useful tips for parents. " Proper dental care will minimize the risk of caries.
  • Lack of load on milk teeth.Moms in the care of their children in 3 years fray or bleach food for his toddler. But with their care, they only aggravate the healthy development of the baby. Milk teeth need a load (chewing on solid food), because without it the enamel on the teeth becomes thinner and very weak.
  • Sucking bottlequite often leads to the development of caries.
  • Transmission of caries from adults.This happens when the house is shared. Pathogenic bacteria from the oral cavity of adults "move" into the mouth to the baby, where they actively begin destructive actions. To eliminate this possibility, have separate dishes for the child.
  • Weak immunity.With the weakening of the body all sorts of chronic diseases, as well as taking medications that change the composition of saliva, caries may well develop.

Dental caries of milk teeth in children: types, intensity and diagnosis

There are four types of caries progression in children:

  • Initial caries.There are spots that do not affect the enamel, and are on its surface.
  • Caries on enamel.The appeared stains on the teeth darken, but so far do not bring discomfort to the baby. Carious cavities are becoming deeper, and over time there is the first pain when eating sweet, cold.
  • Average caries.The grooves are getting bigger, go beyond the enamel. More often there are painful sensations. Food may accumulate in the cavities of the recesses. There is an unpleasant smell from the mouth due to the decomposition of food debris.
  • Deep caries.A pulpitis appears, with each contact with food the child complains of pain. In addition to significant damage to the tooth, the child has weakness, nausea, and the temperature may rise. Chewing is getting harder.

Children are most often diagnosed with cervical caries. It affects the area near the root. The intensity varies:

  • unit- which affects one tooth;
  • multiple- at which several teeth “get sick” at the same time.

Concerningdiagnostics,you can detect caries in a baby in different ways:

  • normalvisual inspectionoral cavity using dental equipment and mirrors;
  • vital staining, represents the application of a special blue 2% dye to the tooth surface. After the reaction, places with caries turn blue;
  • x-ray- A picture or panorama of the row is taken;
  • transillumination -modern diagnostic method, which consists in scanning the tooth rows with photopolymerization lamps;
  • fluorescent stomatoxia- for its implementation using ultraviolet radiation of the LED detector. Diagnosis is carried out in a dark room. When translucent healthy enamel radiates blue color, and the affected areas darken.

Diagnostics is carried out in children's dental centers or offices, where, according to the results of diagnosis, adequate treatment is prescribed.

Bottle caries in a child

Bottle caries- the pathology of the teeth, appearing in children 2-4 years. The name speaks for itself. The disease develops due to the child’s habit of drinking milk from a bottle at night (night feedings also affect the appearance of caries).After sucking the bottle, the baby falls asleep, and milk or infant formula on the teeth becomes an excellent place for the development of pathogenic microflora, which causes tooth decay. The destruction of enamel proceeds according to the same scheme as with ordinary caries.

The effect of nocturnal breastfeeding is the same: the remnants of carbohydrates, which milk is rich in - this is an excellent food for bacteria, and as the baby continues to sleep, the progression goes very quickly.

Caries in young children: should it be treated?

It is imperative to treat the primary teeth for caries. Why? Here are two main reasons:

  1. Caries is an infectious process and if it is not treated, the pathogenic microflora will also “get” to new permanent teeth when teething. If the inflammatory process spreads through the root canal, reaching the bone tissue, then there is a risk of the emergence of a tooth cyst or infection of the germ of a permanent tooth.
  2. Milk teeth are peculiar markers for the growth of permanent teeth. They are “gunners” who show where to grow permanent teeth. This function is very important, and when a baby tooth falls out due to caries, it is not performed, and the molars, “not seeing the guideline,” grow incorrectly.

Due to the negligence of parents to the baby teeth of their child, a person gets a crooked dentition.

In addition to the above arguments, early removal of milk teeth leads to improper bite and speech defects.

Caries in children: photos of the stages of the disease

Initial caries (spots)
Enamel caries
Average caries
Deep caries

Treatment of dental caries in children

Treatment of caries in children depends on the stage of the disease. It is slightly different from adult therapy.

The main task of parents is to mentally prepare the child for going to the dental clinic, since the fear of the dentist will not help to carry out the procedure without serious consequences.

1The most common treatments for milk teeth include:

  • Remineralization. With stains, this is the main therapy. After removal of plaque, medical solutions rich in calcium, fluorine, phosphorus are used. Such solutions help restore tooth tissue. The procedure is carried out once every six months.
  • Silvering.When it is conducted, the enamel is coated with silver nitrate, which protects it from further damage, since silver has a strong antibacterial effect.The procedure is quite simple and effective, but as a side effect there is a lasting effect of staining the teeth black.
  • Sealing.If the caries is not deep, then a special acid is applied to the kiddies on the affected part of the tooth, which eats away the tissues of the carious cavity, disinfecting it. In the deep stage of caries, a drill is used to remove damaged tissue. After cleaning, the hole is filled with photopolymer (hardens under the light of ultraviolet light) with a quick-drying material.

Complications of caries in children

The sooner the treatment of caries begins, the more effective it will be. In cases where the disease does not attach importance, there are complications, and not only those described above. The progression of caries may in the future provoke a malfunction of some systems of the body, as it causes disease-causing bacteria. The most dangerous complications include:

  • Premature loss of milk teeth leads to physiological impairment of the development of the maxillofacial bones.
  • The development of diseases of the digestive system.
  • The appearance of chronic allergies.
  • Inflammatory processes in the oral cavity.

Prevention of caries in children


In order for a child to have strong teeth, a mother carrying a baby should remember to eat foods that contain calcium.

Prevention of caries should begin at an early age.

  • After baby teeth erupt, you need to teach your child to clean them and monitor the correctness of the procedure.
  • Up to 3 years is better not to give the child sweets or minimize them. The worst effect on the tooth enamel carbonated sweet water and stringy candy.
  • In order to prevent the need to visit the pediatric dentist twice a year.
  • Enter in the diet of the baby foods containing calcium.
  • After a year, give up nightly feedings, and after an evening stitch to your chest or bottle, brush your teeth.
  • Get separate dishes for your baby so that other family members do not use it.

Prevention is always better than cure. Watch your baby’s baby teeth, and you minimize the risk of complications in the future.

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