Analysis for cytomegalovirus: indications for the appointment of blood tests, which shows decoding
There are several reasons fordiagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection. Often there is an asymptomatic course of the disease, there is a risk of very serious complications in a pregnant woman and a child.
Diagnosis of cytomegalovirus
For the analysis on cytomegalovirus it is necessary to makecollecting blood from the patient, collect urine or sputum. Diagnosis of the disease is performed to detect antibodies to infection in the patient's body. Antibodies appear in the patient's body immediately after infection and thereby help to stop the subsequent development of the infection process, due to which the disease proceeds without significant symptoms.
To determine the stage of the pathological processIt is necessary to regularly determine the level of antibodies in the blood. Simultaneously with the blood test, other methods of examination are used to establish an accurate diagnosis.
Indications for analysis
Present in the human bodycytomegalovirus usually does not manifest itself at all, especially if a good and strong immune system. Indications for the appointment of blood tests for cytomegalovirus are as follows:
- Planning of pregnancy.
- Organ transplant operations.
- Placental insufficiency.
- Signs of infection of the baby in the womb.
- Presence of uncharacteristic pneumonia in a child.
An analysis for cytomegalovirus can be prescribed,even if a person often has colds. Due to timely diagnosis, it is possible to determine the presence of the disease at the initial stages and to timely treat.
Importance of giving analysis in pregnancy
When planning a pregnancy is very importantdetermine the presence of a virus in the body of a woman. This infection can provoke various kinds of complications in a pregnant woman and a fetus. Infection at a term of up to 10 weeks often leads to intrauterine malformations. Because of the presence of infection, there is a high risk of spontaneous miscarriage.
With a later infection, fetal development may be delayed. Infringements of internal organs are possible, therefore newborn children suffer from hearing damage and respiratory diseases.
It is very important to take the pregnancy in timeanalysis for cytomegalovirus, as there are certain drugs that can suppress its activity and prevent the occurrence of severe disorders in the fetus.
Main types of analysis
There are several types of analyzes for cytomegalovirus, the main ones of which are:
- cultural method;
- polymer-chain reaction;
- analysis of ELISA.
The most frequently used ELISA assay, since ithelps to detect the virus in the body even at the initial stages of infection. The essence of the method implies the definition of antibodies to the presence of the virus in the blood. Thanks to this technique, it is possible to determine which class of immunoglobulins are present in the blood. This analysis is considered the most accurate and reliable. The advantage of this type of research is that the results can be obtained very quickly.
Carrying out of research by a method of a polymeric chain reaction means under itself definition of DNA of a virus. Absolutely any biological material is suitable for research.
For the culture method of research,absolutely any biological material, however, it is considered a shortcoming of a long wait for the results. After sampling the biomaterial, it is placed in a nutrient medium, where it is located for 10-12 days. This makes it possible to determine the presence of infection in the body. What kind of analysis to conduct, determines only the attending physician.
Preparation for the analysis
To get the most reliable result,During the research it is necessary to adhere to certain recommendations. It is forbidden for women to take an analysis during menstruation. If the analysis fence is carried out from the male urethra, then it is forbidden to wet it for several hours.
The result is influenced by the amount of material taken and the correctness of the fence. Some training is not required, but it is advisable to take blood from the vein early in the morning on an empty stomach.
Explanation of results
It is necessary to know what the analysis showscytomegalovirus, for correct interpretation of the results. Immunity provokes the production of immunoglobulins immediately after the virus enters the body. Determine how active microorganisms and how long they are present in the body will help the analysis of cytomegalovirus. The decoding is to indicate the titers for antibodies of the IgG group. They are determined not only during the course of the disease, but also after the treatment.
This is why, after a while,repeated analysis. If the IgG antibody titer rises, then this indicates that the virus has been activated. To confirm the diagnosis, you need to conduct an additional study to determine the blood antibodies of the IgM group.
The decoding of the result obtained should be performed only by a doctor who then treats the patient. If there is a need, additional tests can be prescribed.
IgG antibody norm
The number of immunoglobulins is expressed astiter. Norms for the value of the IgG titer does not exist, because the number of antibodies produced in the body of each person can differ for various reasons. It can be a general condition of the body, the state of the immune system, lifestyle, the presence of chronic diseases, especially metabolism.
What is IgM and IgG
Immunoglobulins are proteins that spread in the intercellular fluid and blood lymphocytes. Due to the presence of antibodies, the greatest possible protection against the spread of infection is ensured.
During the study for availabilitycytomegalovirus, the state of antibodies IgM and IgG is assessed. Immunoglobulin of the IgM group begins production at the primary infection in the initial stage of the disease. If they are detected in the blood, then this indicates a recent infection of a person or a relapse of the disease. In this case, they are much less than in the case of primary infection.
Literally a month after infection in the bloodthere are immunoglobulins such as IgG. At the initial stages of infection, antibodies are characterized by low activity. After a few months their number increases dramatically. It is worth noting that these antibodies are characterized by the absence of normal indices, therefore, with CMV IgG positive or negative.
Positive IgG result
When infected with cytomegalovirus in the bodya person almost immediately develop antibodies to infection. Since the immune system suppresses the spread of the virus, the disease is virtually asymptomatic. The presence of antibodies is determined by conducting a laboratory blood test.
If the analysis shows a negative result,then this speaks not only of the absence of infection, but also of increased susceptibility to possible primary infection. If CMV IgG is positive, then in this case, stable immunity is not produced.
The analysis is carried out by the ELISA or PRC method. The first option involves the definition of antibodies, indicating the immune response for infection. If the analysis for cytomegalovirus is positive, it indicates that the primary infection occurred no more than a month ago.
Features of cytomegalovirus in children
Quite often diagnosed cytomegalovirusin children. Symptoms and treatment of this disease largely depend on the characteristics of infection. In general, the infection proceeds without certain expressed signs. Viruses are resistant to antibiotics. Particularly susceptible to the disease are the fetus and newborn children who may become infected during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
If there is cytomegalovirus in children,Symptoms and treatment in many respects depend on the features of the course of the disease. However, sometimes the child may have certain disorders from the nervous system. In this case, the child may have frequent headaches, insomnia, overwork.
If the immune system of the child is weakened, thenthe infection can provoke very dangerous complications, therefore immediate treatment is required. When cytomegalovirus is affected, symptoms in children largely depend on the age of the child and the state of the immune system. In general, there are such signs as:
- swelling of the larynx;
- weakness of muscles;
Sometimes there may be a rash all over the body. Treatment is carried out with the help of antiviral drugs, which can reduce the activity of the virus.